History of the
American Field Service in France




Appendix I






De Forest, George Wright 3 months 1917 Evanston, Ill. U.S.A.A.S.
Keith, Leland 8 months 1917-18 Worcester, Mass Cadet, U.S. Av.
McCullough, Welcome William 7 months 1917-18 Saugus, Mass U.S.A.
Sampson, Prof. Martin W. 2 months 1917 Ithaca, N.Y  
Sleeper, Henry Davis*
American Representative
3 years, 9 months 1915-16-17-18-19 Boston, Mass Dir. A.F.S. Hdqts., France
Thompson, William T. 1 year, 2 months 1917-18 Hartford, Conn U.S. Navy
Watkins, Osric Mills 3 months 1917 Indianapolis, Ind 2d Lt., U.S. av.
Young, George Ranney
Recruiting Officer
10 months 1917 Cambridge, Mass 2d Lt., U.S. Av.
*Legion of Honor

Bedard, Pierre Armand 4 months 1917 Lynn, Mass 2d Lt., U.S. Ord.
Blodgett, Delos Abiel, 2d 5 months 1917 Grand Rapids, Mich 2d Lt., C.W.S., U.S.A.
Hecht, George J. 3 months 1917 New York City Stat. Div., U.S.A,
Hereford. William R.
New York Representative
2 years, 6 months 1915-16-17 New York City Exec. Sec'y, Am. Amb. Hosp. and A.R.C., Italy
Holden, Edwin Whittier 4 months 1917 Pittsfield, Mass U.S. Int., A.R.C.
Ingham. James 4 months 1917 Buffalo, N.Y. Nav. Air Service, C.Q.M.
Kahle, Curt 10 months 1917 New York City U.S. Tank Corps
Morgan, Gorton P. 5 months 1917 Norwalk, Conn U.S. Nav. Av.
Mulligan, Ralph F. 4 months 1917 New York City U.S.N.R.
Myles, Beverly Russell 5 months 1917 New York City A.R.C. Italy
Newman, Robert E. 3 months 1917 New York City U.S. Av,
Petticolas, James M. 3 months 1917 New York City Ensign, U.S.N.R,
Robbins, Douglas 4 months 1917 New York City Am. Pro, League
Sartorius, Herman U. 3 months 1917 Brooklyn, N.Y. S./Lt., Fr. Art.
Scudder, Evarts S. 5 months 1917 Boston, Mass A.R.C., Italy
Solley, Theodore Houston 3 months 1917 New York City  
Webster, Harold M. 3 months 1917 New York City Y.M.C.A.

Cordner, Edward O 3 months 1917 Chicago, Ill. A.R.C., Italy
Hummel, Fred C. 2 months 1917 Chicago, Ill. U.S.A.A.S.
Hutchinson, Charles L.
5 months 1917 Chicago, Ill. Belgian Relief Fund, etc,
Insull, Samuel
5 months 1917 Chicago, Ill.  
Macfarland, Lanning 3 months 1917 Chicago, Ill. A.R.C., Serbia
McCormick, Chauncey
Western Representative
5 months 1917 Chicago, Ill. Capt., U.S.Q.M.C.
Pike, Charles B.
Western Representative
1 year, 3 months 1917-18 Chicago, Ill. Chrmn., Exec, Comm. Mil. Train ing Camps Assoc., Cen., So. and West. Depts.
Smith, Rae H, 2 months 1917 Winnetka, Ill. 2d Lt., U.S.Av,
Thomas, Gaylord 9 months 1917 Chicago. III Civ., U.S. Av,
Trude, Alfred S. 3 months 1917 Chicago, Ill. U.S.A.A.S,
Varney, Walter K. 4 months 1917 Zanesville, Ohio U.S.A.A.S,

Brunswig, Lucien N.
Rep. for Los Angeles and Southern California
8 months 1917 Los Angeles, Calif Secours aux: Blessés Militaires, etc.
Goodhue, Frank D 2 months 1917 Pasadena, Calif A.R.C., etc,
Lane, Lewis P. 2 months 1917 Long Beach, Calif U.S. Ord. Dept.
McKay, William S. 2 months 1917 Pasadena, Calif A.R.C., etc.
Reagan, William Nilson
Director, Los Angeles Headquarters
2 months 1917 Long Beach, Calif 1st Lt., U.S. Signal Corps.



Frederick S. Allis
Oliver H. Schaaf

Pres. Kenneth C. M. Sills
Carleton M. Pike
Loyal F. Sewall

Claude R. Branch
Alan S. Browne
John B. Gibson

Professor Martin W. Sampson
Francis H. Scheetz
Edward I. Tinkham
R. E. Treman
Donald B. Vail
C. W. Whitehair

Eugene D. Towler

J. Paulding Brown
Walter H. Wheeler
Julian L. Lathrop

E. C. Davidson
W. Allison Richards
Robert W. Wolcott

Robert A. Donaldson
Joseph H. Eastman
W. H. Gibson
Carl A. Randau
Clemens A. Randau
Frank J. Taylor

Beman G. Dawes
Beman G. Dawes, Jr.

Irving G. Hall
Harold E. Kebbin

Dr. Alfred I. Stearns

G. McF. Galt
W. D. F. Hughes
Dean Howard McClenahan
Robert L. Nourse
Prof. E. G. Spaulding
Arthur R. Taber

Prof. William L. Hooper
Herbert D. Miller

J. Herbert Brown
Prof. Gilbert Chinard
Prof. Charles M. Gayley
Harry B. Seymour

Christian Gross

A. D. Rathbone, 4th
J. Ward Starrett

Virgil S. Beck
Howard W. Hailey
Dr. Guy L. Noyes

Prof. Eugene H. Bryne
Prof. A. L. P. Dennis
Prof. Carl R. Fish

Prof. John L. Lowes

J. Elson Jeffres

Pres. Charles F. Thwing

Lloyd Kitchel



Seth S. Spencer, Jr.

H. M. Hanna, Jr.

Charles E. Whitmore, Pres., New York City Club

F. S. Murphy

W. B. Bourne, President, Friends of France
E. C. LaMontagne
F. S. Moody, San Francisco Representative
Arthur S. Ward

Dr. Malvern B. Clopton
C. H. Langenberg
J. Clarence Taussig
Edward J. Walsh

Henry Wharton

James F. Ewing
Wells Gilbert,
Northwestern Representative

C. W. Gordon
C. R. Vincent

Judge D. Raymond Cobb
Cyril B. Smith

Luke C. Doyle, Representative at War Department


Appendix K



Friends of France. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. 1916.

An interesting account of the American Field Service from its conception in 1914 up to the beginning of 1916. The stories of the work of the various sections are told by the volunteers themselves in articles, letters, and diaries. The first formal history of the work of the American Field Service.

Amis de la France. Paris: Plon-Nourrit & Cie . 1917

A French edition of the above book, translated by M. Firmin Roz, with a preface by the French Ambassador to the United States, M. Jules J. Jusserand. It contains several modifications and additions not found in the American edition.

Letters Written Home from France. By A. Piatt Andrew; edited by Henry D. Sleeper. Boston: Privately printed. 1916.

A collection of letters by A. Piatt Andrew written during the first half of 1915. "These pages," says Mr. Sleeper in his preface, "give little idea of the very difficult task their author has successfully accomplished. Largely through his perseverance against great odds the American Ambulance Field Service has become a very distinguished organization, trusted and relied upon by the Armies of France."

Ambulance No. 10. By Leslie Buswell. Houghton Mifflin Company. 1916.

A volume of ambulance letters written from Section Two at Pont-à-Mousson during the summer of 1915. This is a duplication, somewhat augmented, of With the Ambulance Field Service in France, privately printed in 1915.

A Volunteer Poilu. By Henry Sheahan. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. 1916.

The interesting and admirably written story of Section Two of the Field Service at Pont-à-Mousson during the autumn of 1915 and the early winter of 1916. The author was a member of this Section.

At the Front in a Flivver. By William Yorke Stevenson. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. 1917

The author of this diary joined Section One in the Spring of 1916, and he well describes the volume, which deals with the history of the Section during that year, in these words taken from his introductory "Note": "This little book is merely a record of what one driver of a 'Tin Lizzie' happened to see during some nine months spent on the Somme, around Verdun, and in the Argonne."

From Poilu to Yank. By William Yorke Stevenson. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. 1918.

A continuation of the foregoing book, bringing down the history of Section One to the time when it was taken over by the U.S. Army, in September, 1917

Behind the Wheel of a War Ambulance. By Robert W. Imbrie. New York: Robert W. McBride & Co. 1918.

This book treats most humanly of life in Section One and in Section Three in the Orient during the earlier days of the service, giving a full and vivid impression of the work of a conducteur. The author has a pleasant straightforward style, a good eye for color, and for the significance of events. The book is well organized and hardly a phase of the ambulance life is overlooked.

Soldier Letters. By Coleman Tileston Clark and Salter Storrs Clark, Jr. Privately printed. 1919.

A volume of home letters from two brothers, both of whom were killed in the war. Coleman Clark was one of the veterans of Section Three, and his letters cover the activities of that Section at Verdun and in Lorraine in 1916, and in the Balkans in 1916 and 1917.

Diary of Section VIII. Edited by H. D. Sleeper. Privately printed. Boston. 1917.

As the editor well says in his preface, "This record is typical of the day's work of every section in the Field Service." It throws many side-lights on the great struggle at Verdun, where the Section was stationed during the summer and autumn of 1916.

Diary of S.S.U. 29. Privately printed. Paris. 1917.

A brief section history, covering the period from May, 1917, to the following autumn, when the Section was "federalized," and affording glimpses of Verdun, where the Section did some fine work, immediately after "the great days."

Diary of S.S.U. 19. In three parts. Privately printed. Paris. 1917 and 1918.

A brief history of Field Service Section Nineteen, from its organization in May, 1917.

Ambulance 464. By Julien H. Bryan. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1918.

The author was a Princeton Freshman of seventeen, and a member of Section Twelve from January to July, 1917; an excellent example of the way our American college youth entered into the true spirit of the contest on the Western Front. Many illustrations. The introduction is by the Reverend Lyman Abbott.

An American Crusader at Verdun. By Philip Sidney Rice. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press. 1918.

This little volume is made up of recollections of the work during 1917

From Poilu to Yank. By William Yorke Stevenson. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. 1918.

A continuation of the foregoing book, bringing down the history of Section One to the time when it was taken over by the U.S. Army, in September, 1917

Behind the Wheel of a War Ambulance. By Robert W. Imbrie. New York: Robert W. McBride & Co. 1918.

This book treats most humanly of life in Section One and in Section Three in the Orient during the earlier days of the service, giving a full and vivid impression of the work of a conducteur. The author has a pleasant straightforward style, a good eye for color, and for the significance of events. The book is well organized and hardly a phase of the ambulance life is overlooked.

Soldier Letters. By Coleman Tileston Clark and Salter Storrs Clark, Jr. Privately printed. 1919.

A volume of home letters from two brothers, both of whom were killed in the war. Coleman Clark was one of the veterans of Section Three, and his letters cover the activities of that Section at Verdun and in Lorraine in 1916, and in the Balkans in 1916 and 1917.

Diary of Section VIII. Edited by H. D. Sleeper. Privately printed. Boston. 1917

As the editor well says in his preface, "This record is typical of the day's work of every section in the Field Service." It throws many side-lights on the great struggle at Verdun, where the Section was stationed during the summer and autumn of 1916.

Diary of S.S. U. 18. Privately printed. Paris. 1917

A brief section history, covering the period from May, 1917, to the following autumn, when the Section was "federalized," and affording glimpses of Verdun, where the Section did some fine work, immediately after "the great days."

Diary of S.S.U. 19. In three parts. Privately printed. Paris. 1917 and 1918.

A brief history of Field Service Section Nineteen, from its organization in May, 1917

Ambulance 464. By Julien H. Bryan. New York: The Macmillan Company. 1918.

The author was a Princeton Freshman of seventeen, and a member of Section Twelve from January to July, 1917; an excellent example of the way our American college youth entered into the true spirit of the contest on the Western Front. Many illustrations. The introduction is by the Reverend Lyman Abbott.

An American Crusader at Verdun. By Philip Sidney Rice. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press. 1918.

This little volume is made up of recollections of the work during 1917 in the Champagne region, at Verdun, and in Lorraine of Section One, of which the author was a member. The Introduction is by Major-General C. B. Dougherty, of the Pennsylvania National Guard. It appeared originally as "An Ambulance Driver in France" which was privately printed in 1918 at Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania.

The White Road of Mystery. By Philip Dana Orcutt. New York: John Lane Company. 1918.

The author of this book was formerly a member of Section Thirty-One of the Field Service, and its pages are made up of extracts from his notebook kept during the Verdun offensive of the summer of 1917.

Personal Letters. By Reginald Noël Sullivan. Printed for private circulation. 1917

These letters from France covering a period extending from August to November, 1917, are edited by the author's uncle, United States Senator James D. Phelan, of California. Mr. Sullivan was a member of Section Sixty-Five of the Field Service.

En Repos and Elsewhere. By Lansing Warren and Robert A. Donaldson. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. 1918.

A small volume of verses touching on the ambulance-driver's life in France. The book is by two former Leland Stanford students who were volunteers in Section Seventy, and later Section Eighteen, of the Field Service. There is an amusing preface by the authors, and a humorous glossary of war terms. The introduction is by Lieutenant-Colonel A. Piatt Andrew.

Turmoil. By Robert A. Donaldson. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. 191g.

A volume of light and serious verses written in France, 1917-19, by one of the co-authors of En Repos and Elsewhere.

Verse. By William Cary Sanger, Jr. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons. 1920.

A collection of poems published previously in four separate volumes. One group, "With the Armies of France" is made up chiefly of verses written in France and while the author was a member of Section Nine. With sincerity and success they express the fine fire of the French Army.

Camion Letters. Edited by Professor Martin W. Sampson, of Cornell University. New York: Henry Holt & Co. 1918.

The editor of this charming little book was one of the official agents in America of the Field Service. It is made up of the home letters of a dozen college men at the front who were acting as motor-transport drivers with the French Armies during 1917.

Trucking to the Trenches. By John Iden Kautz. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. 1918.

Written with graphic and humorous touches, these letters, by a young American truck-driver of the American Field Service, give a somewhat exaggerated picture of life near the front.

Camion Cartoons. By Kirkland H. Day. Boston: Marshall Jones Co. 1919.

A little volume of cartoons of life in the Camion Service, with humorous home letters accompanying them, by a cartoonist-writer who went to France in July, 1917, with the first Technology Unit, and later enlisted in the U.S. Motor-Transport Service.

I Was There. By C. LeRoy Baldridge and Hilmar R. Baukage. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons. 1919.

Sketches that bring to life moments and men of "every day over there." Their range of subject and manner is exceptionally broad, and Mr. Baldridge, one of the early volunteers in the transport branch of the Field Service, catches unerringly in his drawings the spirit not only of the Camion Service and the French soldiery, but also of that Franco-American camaraderie which was such a wonderful, strong outgrowth of the American Field Service. The occasional verses are the work of a fellow private in the A.E.F.

A Stop at Suzanne's. By late Second Lieutenant Greayer Clover. New York: George N. Doran & Co. 1919. Sketches originally published in Collier's, etc.

Letters and sketches describing the life of our boys in France, by a Yale student who served with the French Camion Service and later in the American Aviation Corps.

The Story of the First Flag. Compiled by Clara E. Kimber. San Francisco. 1920.

An account compiled from his letters and other documents of the mission of Arthur Clifford Kimber, killed in action September 26, 1918, who in May, 1917, carried to France the first American flag authorized by the United States Government to be borne at the front. This flag, destined for the first Stanford unit, Section Fourteen, was presented on June 4, 1917, at Tréveray, France.



The Harvard Volunteers. Edited by M. A. de Wolfe Howe. Cambridge-, Harvard University Press. 1916.

As the sub-title reads, we have here "personal records of experience in military ambulance and hospital service." A half-dozen of the chapters of this admirable story of worthy deeds are from the pens of members of the American Field Service.

Les Volontaires américains dans les rangs alliés. By Paul-Louis Hervieu. Paris: Edition de La Nouvelle Revue. 1917.

This book tells briefly what Americans did for the Allies before the United States entered the war officially. Chapters 10, 11, and 12 are devoted to an account of the work of the Field Service, "whose extraordinary services will not be forgotten, any more than the splendid impulse which gave it birth."

The American Volunteers with the Allies. By PauI-Louis Hervieu. Paris: Edition de La Nouvelle Revue. 1918.

An English version of the book just mentioned.

Our Part in the Great War. By Arthur H. Gleason. New York: Frederick A. Stokes. 1917

The opening section of this book, one of the first published in the United States which fearlessly exposed the crimes of Germany in her conduct of the war, is entitled "Americans Who Helped," and contains chapters devoted to the American Field Service, whose activities the author pronounces "the most brilliant, the most widely known of any we are doing in France, a powerful factor in rescue work."

The Latin at War. By Will Irwin. London: Constable & Company. 1917

A most admirably written and moving book, dwelling on the first two years of the war along the Franco-Italian front. Some of the author's most interesting episodes, especially in Chapter 6, "Beyond Verdun," and Chapter 7, "A Drive with the Kid," are based on his relations with Sections Two, Three, Four, and Eight of the American Field Service.

The Vanguard of American Volunteers. By Edwin W. Morse. New York : Charles Scribner's Sons. 1918.

This book tells briefly what Americans did in the Great War before the United States entered the struggle officially. Part IV, entitled "American Ambulances in France," is largely devoted to the American Field Service. The frontispiece is a group of the early ambulance drivers of Sections One and Two.

Phillips Academy, Andover, in the Great War. Edited by Claude Moore Fuess. New Haven: Yale University Press. 1919.

A record of Andover and Andover men in the Great War. There is a chapter on the Field Service Unit from Andover, telling of its work at the front and the individual records of the men.

New England Aviators. Houghton Mifflin Company. 1920.

This book contains the war record of nearly a score of men who began their world war career in the American Field Service.



"With the American Ambulance in France." By J. R. McConnell. New York: The Outlook, September 15, 1915

The author of this illustrated article, who was a graduate of the University of Virginia and member of Section Two of the Field Service, gives here some account of the early days of the Field Service, aiding "the brave French people in their sublime struggle." Mr. Roosevelt. in an introduction to the article, speaks of "the splendid work of the American Ambulance in France." Later, Mr. McConnell met his death in the Lafayette Escadrille.

"An American Ambulance in the Verdun Attack." By Frank Hoyt Gailor. London. Cornhill Magazine, July, 1916.

The ambulance in question was in Section Two of the Field Service, of which the author of the article ---a resident of Memphis, Tennessee, and a student of Sewanee University---was a member. Two somewhat modified extracts from this interesting article are found in the body of this history.

"Sur le Front." Speech by M. Alexandre Millerand, Deputy and exMinister. France-Etats-Unis, Sept.-Dec., 1916.

Speaking of the sections and the drivers, M. Millerand said: "Elles se sont distinguées en maintes circonstances critiques; les conducteurs, presque tous étudiants, accomplirent leur devoir avec intelligence et ardeur, initiative et courage."

"An American Ambulance at Verdun." By W. Kerr Rainsford. New York: The World's Work, December, 1916.

The author belonged to Section Three of this Service. The article is made up of extracts from his diary kept during the great Verdun battle. Portions of this diary will be found, in a slightly different form, in the chapter devoted to Section Three in this History.

"America's Men." New York: The Bookman, October, 1916.

A book review of Friends of France.

"For Love of France." By Lieutenant-Colonel A. Piatt Andrew. New York: The Outlook, December 27, 1916.

The Inspector-General of the American Field Service in France gave here, in a few pages, the history of the conception, growth, and character of the organization which he founded and did so much to develop,

"Friends of France." Supplement, New York Herald (Paris Edition), December 17, 1916.

An illustrated supplement based on the book bearing the same title and noted above, "an enduring monument to the gallant youths who have shown their love for France."

"Une Ambulance Américaine." Paris: Bulletin des Armées de la République, February 20-23, 1916.

One of the earliest articles published in France describing and praising the Field Service. The Bulletin was edited at the French War Office for circulation in the trenches. "All these volunteers," writes the author of the article, "are prudent, brave, intrepid, and devoted beyond measure. We shall never forget the great service they have rendered our dear wounded."

"My Trip to the Front." By Mrs. W. K. Vanderbilt. New York: Harper's Magazine, January, 1917.

A spirited account of an adventurous visit to the Verdun front in the company of the Inspector-General of the American Field Service; glimpses are afforded of four of the Field Service sections in action.

"The Harvest of the Night." By John Masefield. New York: Harper's Magazine, May, 1917

The British poet, naval writer, and Red Cross worker gives in this article a striking picture of the American Field Service as he saw it at work on the Western Front. "To this company of splendid and gentle and chivalrous Americans," he says, "be all thanks and greetings from the friends and allies of sacred France."

"In the Vosges." By John Masefield. Philadelphia: Saturday Evening Post, July 21, 1917

The story, as told to John Masefield, of an American ambulance driver's first night under fire.

"Les Ambulances Américaines." Paris: L'Illustration, April 14, 1917

An illustrated article on the Field Service. "At this moment, when America enters the war on the side of the Allies, special honor should be rendered to those of her sons who, during two years and a half, shared the dangers and glories of our troops."

"The First American Belligerents." By George H. Seldes. Paris: L'Ambulance, April and May, 1918.

Two articles devoted to the praise mainly of the Field Service. "France will never forget these three thousand Americans."

"With the American Ambulance in France." By Grenville Keogh. New York: Red Cross Magazine, July and August, 1918.

A series of home letters giving a good idea of the ambulance life and work.

"Letters from the War." By Will Irwin. Philadelphia: Saturday Evening Post, July 28, 1917

This, one of a series of letters and articles from France, deals with the work of the then newly organized Camion Service, and the Meaux School.


Appendix L


N. B. Unless otherwise designated, all the words or phrases in the first column are French.

abri: dugout, bomb-proof shelter. May consist of anything from an elaborate system of underground rooms with accommodations for many men, in which case it is usually called a sape, to a cellar of a ruined house offering but slight protection against shells.

"à droite:" to the right," a cry of ambulance and truck drivers trying to make their way along roads obstructed with traffic.

"à gauche:" to the left."

aide-major: assistant military surgeon with the rank of first or second lieutenant.

alerte: alarm. Usually employed to designate the alarm sounded in towns and villages to signal the presence in the vicinity of enemy airplanes. The alerte is sounded by means of a bell, siren, or whistle.

allemand: German, a word seldom used in conversation during the war, the word "boche " being preferred both as noun and adjective.

ambulance: a field hospital consisting of a small number of military surgeons and their personnel in charge of a médecin-chef. It may be attached to a division or a base hospital. The word ambulance in French does not designate a vehicle.

ambulancier: strictly speaking, one of the personnel of an ambulance. Frequently used here to designate an ambulance-driver.

argot: slang.

Armand (le Vieil): "Old Armand," the name given by the poilus to Hartmannsweilerkopf, a word the sound of which suggested to these soldiers Armand Fallières, the venerable ex-president of France.

"armes sur épaules ": "shoulder arms "; a military command.

arrivé: incoming shell.

as: ace; the popular term for a champion aviator.

aspirant: a cadet; a candidate for a second-lieutenancy.

assis: sitting case; a slightly wounded man who can sit up.

atelier: workshop; used here to designate the automobile repair shop of an ambulance section.

"attendez": " wait."

attente des couchés: waiting-room for stretcher cases.

"Attention!": "Look out!"

auberge: small inn.

"au beau milieu": " right in the middle."

aumonier: chaplain.

avant-garde: vanguard. Marechal Joffre has spoken of the Field Service as the avant-garde of the United States Army.

avion de chasse: aeroplane especially designed and equipped for fighting.

avion de bombardement: aeroplane especially designed and equipped for dropping bombs.

avion de reconnaissance: aeroplane especially designed and equipped for taking photographs and reconnoitring.

bague: ring. Finger rings made of aluminum, obtained from German shell-fuses, were made by French soldiers as a pastime. Sometimes these were more or less artistically inlaid with designs in brass or copper, or set with fragments of colored glass from church windows.

barrage: curtain of artillery fire thrown ahead of advancing forces to protect them or to repel an attack. It is also used by both sides during an attack to cut off the enemy's communications with the rear.

bâtiment: building.

bataille: battle.

"belles petites voitures": " fine little cars."

béret: a round, flat, woollen cap worn by the chasseurs alpins or "blue devils."

grosse Bertha (German): popular name for the long-distance cannon which fired on Paris, beginning March 23, 1918, and continuing off and on for six months.

bidon: tin can used to carry gasoline, water, or. oil on a car; small canteen worn by soldiers to carry wine or drinking-water. bistro: cheap drinking-place and restaurant.

blessé: a wounded man.

bleu, bleuet: popular name for a young French recruit recently called to the ranks; since the present war bleu has given way to bleuet, as the new recruits are two or three years younger than in time of peace. These terms, familiar in the metropolitan press, were seldom used at the front. Literally the word designates a blue wild flower prevalent in France.

boche: popular name for a German since the outbreak of the present war. The authorities do not all agree as to the etymology of the word, but the generally accepted explanation is that it is a corruption of alboche, an early French slang term for allemand, German. Les alboches has been turned popularly and wittily into les sales boches.

"bon!" "good!" "fine!" "all right!" The word also means a ticket entitling the holder to something. Thus bon de pain (bread ticket), bon d'essence (gasoline ticket).

bonnet de police: French military fatigue cap, similar to our overseas cap.

boue: mud.

boyau: communication trench. The word literally means intestine, and the military usage is derived from the resemblance of the tortuous zigzags of the trenches.

brancard: stretcher or litter for carrying wounded.

brancardier: stretcher or litter bearer.

brassard: an arm band bearing insignia indicating the kind of service rendered by certain troops. Stretcher-bearers, for instance, wear white brassards with a red cross, indicating to the enemy their non-combatant activity.

brigadier: a corporal in artillery, cavalry, and automobile service.

briquet: a pocket cigarette or pipe lighter usually containing a wick immersed in gasoline. These were made by the French soldiers during their idle hours from every possible kind of material, such as shell-cases, fuses, medals, coins, and even sardine tins.

brisque: popular name for service or wound stripe. In the French Army, when worn on the left arm one stripe means a year's active service, and each subsequent stripe represents six months' additional service. If worn on the right arm, it means that the wearer has been wounded or gassed. See chevron.

brouette: wheelbarrow; wheel-litter; stretcher hung between two large light wheels and pushed by hand. Used to transport wounded back to the poste de secours where they can be loaded into an ambulance.

bureau: office; in an ambulance section, the office and headquarters of the section.

buvette: small drinking-place, bar, or café.

cabaret: village café or restaurant.

"ça chauffe": " it's warming up," referring to increasing artillery fire or other activity on the front.

cadavre: a corpse.

cafard: popular name for a cockroach; French Army slang for the "blues."

"café chaud à toute heure": "hot coffee at all hours."

cagnat: slang name rather affectionately used by a poilu in referring to the bomb-proof hole in which he lives, in which he has perhaps installed some such comforts as a shelf, a piece of carpet, a small mirror, a photograph of his mother, or wife, or family, pictures cut from a newspaper or more probably from the "Vie Parisienne," and which for the time being is his "home."

caleçon: underdrawers.

calvaire: a crucifix erected by a roadside or in a churchyard.

camion: motor-truck or lorry.

camionnette: a small motor-truck.

camouflage: means used to disguise objects of military importance and to render them inconspicuous to the enemy's observers.

cantine: military refreshment station, usually located in a railway station or near rest billets; an officer's trunk.

cantonnement: cantonment; billets; military quarters.

capot: military overcoat; hood of an automobile.

capote: the long blue outer coat worn by French infantrymen except chasseurs, zouaves, and colonial troops.

carrefour: cross-roads; crossways.

carrière: quarry; abandoned quarries often serve as excellent dugouts, being used as dressing-stations or staff headquarters as well as soldiers' shelters.

caserne: military barracks.

casque: helmet.

cave: cellar; wine-cellar.

cave voûtée: vaulted cellar.

centime: monetary value about one fifth of a cent; five centimes make one sou.

cercle: club; clubrooms. The French officers in towns back of the lines frequently established officers' clubs with a moderate priced restaurant, reading-rooms, and such comforts as the circumstances allowed. In these clubs American and Allied officers were always welcome.

"c'est défendu": "it is forbidden."

chambre à air: inner tube.

charge maximum: maximum load.

chasseur alpin: French mountain soldier; the chasseur regiments are as a rule crack troops and excellent fighters. They are known as the "blue devils" on account of their distinctive dark-blue uniforms and bérets as opposed to the light-blue uniform and képi of the ordinary infantryman.

chef: the head of an organization; here used to designate the American officer in command of a volunteer ambulance section.

chef d'escadron: an officer of the rank of Major in certain branches of the French Army, such as cavalry and artillery.

chef de peloton: platoon commander.

chemin interdit: closed road.

chevaux de frise: iron saw-horses on which barbed wire is coiled.

chevron: service stripe like an inverted V worn on the left arm to show length of service. See brisque.

circulation interdite: closed to traffic.

circulation interdite de jour: traffic forbidden by day.

citation à l'ordre: mention in orders.

de l'armée: of an army.
du corps d'armée: of an army corps.
de la division: of a division.
du régiment: of a regiment.
du service de santé: of the medical corps.

Such mention carries with it the award of the French war cross. See Croix de Guerre.

clef: key.

cocarde: a small knot or button of ribbons of the national colors.

cochon: pig; a very insulting appellation in French.

cognac: a kind of brandy.

coiffeur: barber; hairdresser.

commandant: major.

commandant de la place: military commander of a town or village in the war zone.

commissaire de gare: military railway station-master.

communiqué: the official statement concerning military events at the front, issued daily from Army Headquarters.

concièrge: janitor.

conducteur: driver; ambulance-driver.

confiture: preserves; jelly; jam.

contagieux: contagious; a contagious case.

convoi: convoy of wagons or automobiles.

coopérative: quartermaster supply stores run on a coöperative basis and attached to the various formations of the French Army. The object of these stores was to supply the soldiers with all sorts of necessities and extras at moderate prices, both in the trenches and at the rear. Familiarly called the copé (kopay).

coquelicot: wild poppy.

corvée: fatigue duty; fatigue party; used to designate the squads of French territorial soldiers detailed to load and unload trucks.

couché: stretcher case; a severely wounded man who must be carried on a stretcher.

coup de main: trench raid for the purpose of reconnoitring and taking a few prisoners from whom military information may be secured.

crapouillot: a small trench mortar.

créneau. a small aperture in a trench or wall through which one can fire or observe.

croisement: cross-roads.

Croix Rouge: Red Cross.

Croix de Guerre: French War Cross established by the law of April 8, 1915, and awarded for bravery. When awarded by a regimental or brigade commander, the red and green ribbon from which it is suspended bears a bronze star; when by a divisional commander, a silver star; when by an army corps commander, a gold star; and when by an army commander a bronze palm branch.

C.S.A. (Chef du Service Automobile): the officer in charge of the automobile service of a division, army corps, or army.

cuisine: kitchen.

cuisine roulante: rolling kitchen.

cuistot: slang for army cook.

curé: Catholic priest.

débrouillard: capable of getting out of difficulties or of avoiding red tape and embarrassing regulations. See "système D."

débrouiller (se): to cut red tape, to get results regardless of obstacles or regulations. See "système D. "

défendu de passer le jour: forbidden to pass by day.

défense d'allumer: lights forbidden.

défilé: procession; review; parade.

dégel: thaw.

de même: in the same way.

démerder: slang for débrouiller. To get cleverly out of difficult situations.

départ: outgoing shell.

de piquet: on duty; on call.

dépôt de génie: dépôt of engineering supplies.

dépôt d'artillerie: artillery dépôt.

dépôt de munitions: ammunition dépôt.

descente dangereuse: dangerous slope.

descente rapide: steep slope.

"dis-donc": colloquial and familiar word for calling any one's attention, like the English word "say."

divisionnaire: see médecin divisionnaire.

doucement: slowly; gently.

douches: shower baths. Villages, towns, or military cantonments in the war zone are usually provided with a shower-bath establishment for the use of the troops quartered there.

douille: thin brass cylinder which envelops shell.

D.S.A. (Direction du Service Automobile): office and staff of officer, usually a major, in charge of the Automobile Service of a French army.

dud (Eng.): a faulty shell which does not explode.

eau de vie: brandy.

eau potable: drinking-water.

eau non potable: water condemned for drinking-purposes.

éclairage permis: lights permitted.

éclat: shell splinter or fragment of exploded shell.

"économisez l'essence": "save gasoline."

embusqué: a slacker.

emplacement: gun-pit.

"en avant par quatres": "right by squads" (a military command).

en arrière: backwards; back; behind.

en panne: in trouble; broken down; used in referring to an automobile, truck, aeroplane, etc.

en permission: on furlough; on leave.

en repos: in rest billets behind the lines.

entonnoir: literally a funnel; in military language, a very large shell-hole.

entrée: entrance.

entrée interdite: entrance forbidden; no admittance.

entrée pour malades: the entrance of a hospital reserved for the sick as opposed to the wounded cases.

essence: gasoline.

état-major: military staff.

"éteignez tous les feux": " put out all lights."

"éteignez vos lumières, vos phares": "put out your lights".

évacuation: transportation of wounded to the rear or from one hospital to another.

évacués: wounded brought from the front to the rear: also civilians forced by military operations to leave their homes.

feuillée: latrine.

fiche: tag, or card. Every wounded or sick soldier before being evacuated to the rear is supplied with a tag, carried in his pocket or attached to his buttonhole, which states his name, matriculation number, and the nature of his wound or illness.

fil-de-fer barbelé: barbed wire.

"fixe": "attention" (military command).

fourgon: supply or ammunition wagon.

fourragère: a cord in the colors of the Croix de Guerre, Médaille Militaire, or Légion d'Honneur, worn around the left shoulder by all members of a military formation which has been decorated a certain number of times by an army commander: twice for the first, green and red; four times for the second, yellow and green; six times for the third, red; nine times for the first double fourragère composed of the red of the Légion d'Honneur and the red and green of the Croix de Guerre; twelve times for the second double fourragère composed of the red of the Légion d'Honneur and the yellow and green of the Médaille Militaire; and fifteen times for the double red fourragère. Section One of the American Field Service was, one of the few American formations in France to be awarded the fourragère.

fourrier: non-commissioned officer who provides for the feeding and lodging of troops.

foyer du soldat: canteens established wherever French troops were quartered, by a benevolent organization like the American Y.M.C.A.

fromage: cheese.

fumiste: practical joker; literally a chimney-sweep.

fusant: a shrapnel shell set with a time fuse to explode in the air.

fusée: fuse; percussion cap of a shell.

fusée éclairante: illuminating rocket; star-shell.

fusil: rifle.

fusilier marin: French marine soldier. These came very largely from the sailors and fishermen of Brittany.

galon: gold or silver stripe worn on the sleeve just above the cuff to indicate rank in the French Army. A second lieutenant wears one galon; a first lieutenant, two; a captain, three; a major, four: a lieutenant-colonel, five (alternately silver and gold); and a colonel, five (gold for infantry, silver for cavalry and other services, including the automobile service).

gamin: child; youngster; street urchin (boy).

gamine: same (girl).

"garde à vous": "attention" (military command).

garde champêtre: rural policeman.

gare: railway station.

gateau: cake.

G.B.D. (Groupe des Brancardiers Divisionnaire): corps of stretcher-bearers attached to each division under the command of a médecin-chef and including one or more assistant military surgeons. It is the duty of this formation to superintend the evacuation of the sick and wounded, and care for them from the time they leave the regimental dressing-stations until they arrive at the hospital.

gelée blanche: hoar frost.

génie: engineering corps.

gendarme: military policeman. One of their duties was to direct traffic at the front.

gentil: nice, kind.

gniole: slang term for brandy.

gosse: a child; baby.

gotha (German): the popular name in Paris for the big German bombarding planes which began to appear in the winter of 1917-18 and continued until September of the latter year.

gourbi: the improvised hut or hole in the ground which serves as the poilu's shelter and home at the front. See cagnat.

gradé: non-commissioned officer.

G.Q.G. (Grand Quartier Général): general headquarters.

grand blessé: a severely wounded man.

grignoter: to nibble; in army slang, to destroy slowly. General Joffre was reported to have described his policy in the first years of the war as "je les grignoterai ... .. I will nibble them." For this he was frequently called the grignoteur (the nibbler).

grosse pièce: heavy cannon.

groupement: automobile formation corresponding to the regiment in the infantry.

haute paye: extra pay allowance.

H.O.E. (Hôpital d'Observation et d'Evacuation): evacuation hospital back of the lines and situated at a railhead; familiarly called the "hashoway" by American drivers.

"ils ne passeront pas": "They shall not pass "; a declaration of General Pétain in an ordre du jour promulgated at the most critical moment of the battle of Verdun, which became a proverbial expression of faith in the French Army.

infirmier: hospital orderly.

infirmière: hospital nurse.

inperméable: raincoat.

intendance: the quartermaster's corps; colloquially used for the place where quartermasters' supplies were distributed.

intransportable: a man too badly wounded to be carried farther.

jamais: never; not at all; no.

jus: slang for coffee.

képi: French infantry cap.

kilomètre: about five eighths of a mile.

Kultur: German cruelty.

là-bas: yonder; used here to designate the trenches.

laisser passer: permit to circulate.

Légion d'Honneur: a civil and military order instituted by Napoleon in 1802. The grades are chevalier, officier, commandeur, grand-officier, grand-croix. Given to officers in the army for long or distinguished service and more rarely to non-commissioned officers and privates. Awarded to civilians for distinguished public service.

lessiveuse: washing apparatus.

livret: matriculation record book for soldiers or military automobiles.

"long, dur, sûr": "long, hard, certain," a prophecy attributed to General Foch, in the early months of the war.

machine à écrire: typewriter.

magasin des pièces de rechange: automobile supply store.

maire: mayor.

mairie: town hall.

maison brûlée: house destroyed by fire.

major: see médecin-major.

major de cantonnement: billeting officer; officer stationed in a town or village to arrange for the billeting of troops.

malade: sick; a sick man.

maréchal des logis: a non-commissioned officer with the rank of sergeant in certain branches of the French Army, such as artillery, cavalry, and the automobile service.

marmite: literally, a kettle; trench slang for a big shell.

marraine: godmother; it was common during the war for French women of all classes to adopt one or more soldiers at the front for the purpose of sending them regularly packages of little luxuries, such as food and warm clothing, books, etc. The woman was known as the marraine and the soldier thus adopted was her filleul or godson. More often than not the marraine and her filleul were total strangers, knowing each other only by correspondence, and were of entirely different walks in life, but there are many stories of such relationship ending in interesting romances.

mauvais coin: bad corner.

M.C.A. (Magasin Central Automobile): central automobile supply dépôt.

Médaille Militaire: highest distinction medal, instituted by Napoleon III in 1852 and awarded to enlisted men in the French Army for bravery. A peculiarity of this medal is that only enlisted men and generals of the highest rank can receive it.

médecin-chef: military surgeon or doctor in the French Army in command of a hospital, field hospital, or G.B.D.

médecin-divisionnaire: divisional surgeon; the medical officer in charge of the medical corps of an army division.

médecin-major: a military surgeon or doctor with the rank of captain or major.

médecin-principal: a military surgeon or doctor with the rank of colonel or lieutenant-colonel.

"méfiez-vous": "beware."

merci: thanks; thank you.

merci quand même: thanks all the same.

mitrailleuse: machine gun.

"Mon centre cède, ma droite récule, situation excellente, j'attaque!": My centre yields, my right is retreating, situation excellent. I am attacking!" General Foch's famous telegram to French headquarters, on September 9, during the first Battle of the Marne.

"mon vieux": "old man"; a familiar and friendly term of address. (Often abbreviated to vieux.)

mort: dead (noun and adjective).

mort sur le champ d'honneur: died on the field of honor.

mot: word; password.

moulin: mill.

moulin à café: literally, coffee mill; a slang expression for a machine gun.

musette: haversack.

"nom de Dieu": a French oath.

obus: shell.

"On les aura": "We'll get them." A popular expression of confidence in the outcome of the war appearing frequently on posters and medals and in the press.

ordre de mouvement: order authorizing a deplacement of troops or individuals.

paillasse: a rough mattress filled with straw or similar material and much used at the front.

pain: bread.

palme: see Croix de Guerre.

Panam: soldiers' slang for Paris.

panne: see en panne.

paperasse: red-tape; official formality and delay.

parc: automobile repair dépôt, one of which was attached to every French army, and which served as a base for motor supplies and repair work for the various automobile formations.

pâtisserie: pastry; pastry shop.

patois: dialect.

patronne: woman proprietor, or wife of owner or proprietor of a hotel, restaurant, boarding-house, or private home.

pavé: pavement. Certain villages and country roads in France are paved with large, uneven cobblestones, very difficult for automobiles to travel.

peau de mouton: sheepskin-lined coat.

peloton: platoon.

péniche: large barge, canal-boat.

pépère: a territorial, an old soldier.

perdu: lost.

permis rouge: pink pass issued by the army without which no automobile could circulate. Each day's itinerary was supposed to be written on the back of the pass, and signed by the commanding officer. permission: leave; furlough. Colloquially shortened into perme.

permissionnaire: a soldier on furlough.

petit blessé: a slightly wounded man.

pétrole: kerosene; coal oil.

pièce: a cannon.

pinard: trench slang for ordinary red wine which forms part of the French soldiers' regular rations.

piste: path, trail.

planche: a board.

plaque d'identité: identification tag or disc; a piece of metal attached to the soldier's wrist or about his neck, and inscribed with his name, matriculation number, and the formation to which he belongs.

pneu: automobile tire.

poilu: popular term for a French soldier during the war. It is generally supposed that this term, which means "hairy," "unshorn," came into use through the unkempt and unshorn appearance of the soldiers in the early days of the war.

popote: officer's or non-commissioned officer's mess.

"pourquoi s'en faire": "why worry."

poste d'écoute: listening-post.

poste de secours: dressing-station; first-aid station; generally used to refer to the field dressing-stations just behind the lines where the wounded are given first-aid treatment before being loaded into the ambulances for transportation to the rear.

pourboire: tip.

pour intransportable: sign over bunks reserved for men too badly wounded to be carried farther than the first-aid station.

pousse-café: a drink mixed with several different-colored liqueurs.

P. G. (prisonnier de guerre): the abbreviation for "prisoner of war," which is stamped in huge white letters on the back of all captured soldiers' coats.

R.A.T. (réserve de l'armée territoriale): soldiers of the old classes, over forty and often over fifty.

ravitaillement: army supply service; the word is also used to designate the wagon trains bringing up supplies to the lines.

reconquise: reconquered.

réformé: a civilian not accepted for the army because of physical defects; a soldier honorably discharged on account of sickness or wounds.

réglage: adjustment of artillery fire.

réglementaire: according to the rules.

relève: relief, replacement of one troop of soldiers by another.

remorque. trailer; automobile trailer.

"repos": "at ease " (military command).

réserve: a formation kept ready for use when and where most needed.

réserve automobile: a formation of motor trucks and mobile repair shops, with mechanics and drivers, not assigned to any particular army, but used for supplementary service in the most active sectors.

"rompez vos rangs": "break ranks dismissed " (a military command).

Rosalie: army slang for bayonet.

route gardée: a road which on account of congested traffic is subject to special military traffic rules and is under the supervision of military traffic police.

R.V.F. (ravitaillement de viande fraiche): the branch of the French automobile service that directed old autobuses of Paris which were used throughout the war to carry fresh meat from Paris and other centres in the rear to the front.

sabot: wooden shoe.

salaud, saligaud: literally, a dirty person; a vulgar and insulting appellation in French.

salle de triage: the antechamber of a hospital; see triage; also called salle d'attente, waiting-room.

sape: a passage or chamber tunnelled underground.

saucisse: literally, a sausage; the popular term for an observation balloon on account of its sausage-like shape.

serre-fil: file-closers, in military formation; sergeant-mechanic, in automobile convoy.

service sanitaire: medical and sanitary corps.

singe: monkey; monkey-meat; soldier's slang for canned beef.

soixante-quinze: seventy-five; the famous French seventy-five millimetre gun, about the size of our three-inch piece.

solde: soldier's pay.

sortie: exit.

sou: the smallest French copper coin, of the value of five centimes, equivalent to one cent.

source: a spring.

sous-chef: assistant chef; assistant leader of a volunteer ambulance section.

sous-lieutenant: second lieutenant.

spahi: native North African cavalry serving in the French Army.

S. S.U. (Section Sanitaire [Etats-] Unis): the official designation of an American ambulance section serving with the French Army. The letter "U" was an arbitrary abbreviation for "United States" or "American," as "A" could not be used on account of possible confusion with S.S.A. denoting an English (Anglaise) ambulance section.

système D.: a slang term used to designate the system by which the soldier managed to adjust himself to any difficulty of army life. If he needed another blanket, he would "borrow" one from his neighbor's bunk; if he needed wood for a fire, he might dismantle the door of a vacant house; or if a restriction was placed upon him which he considered unnecessary or unreasonable, he would manage to circumvent it without getting into trouble.

taube (German): literally, dove; the common name among the Allied forces early in the war for a German airplane.

"taisez vous! méfiez vous! les oreilles ennemis vous écoutent!": "Silence! Beware! Enemy ears are listening!" a warning posted during the third year of the war in trains, street cars, railway stations, public buildings, factories, and shops, printed in newspapers and programs, and on leaflets of all sizes and sorts, and pasted on billboards throughout France.

terrain: ground; field.

territorial: a member of the oldest classes of the French Reserve, usually a man from thirty-five to forty-five years of age. Territorial soldiers were used rather for labor purposes than for actual fighting, on account of their age.

tirailleur: a French colonial infantryman.

tir de barrage: barrage fire.

T.M. (Transport de matériel): the branch of the Automobile Service engaged in the transportation of munitions and supplies.

tonneau: cask; barrel; rear seat of a touring-car.

torpille: torpedo.

"totos:"cooties"; body-lice.

"tous et tout pour la France": "all and everything for France."

tout le monde: everybody.

train sanitaire: hospital train; ambulance train.

tranchée: trench.

"très pratique": "very practical."

"très commode": "very convenient", "very handy."

triage: sorting station; the act of sorting; or the field hospital where the wounded are sorted and directed to various base hospitals in the vicinity, according to the nature of their wounds or illness and the treatment required.

T.S.F. (télégraphie sans fil): wireless telegraphy.

vaguemestre: the military postman.

vallée: valley.

vin ordinaire: ordinary unbottled wine.

voie sacrée: literally, "Sacred Way"; the name of the road from Bar-le-Duc to Verdun over which thousands of automobiles drove in incessant convoys during the great battle of Verdun in 1916.

zouave: soldier of a French infantry corps created in Algeria in 1831. They have so famous a fighting tradition that faire le zouave means to pretend to be a hero.


Appendix M


SINCE the termination of the war, the trustees of the American Field Service, in order to provide an enduring memorial for those of its members who gave their lives to the Cause, and in order to perpetuate among future generations of French and American youth the mutual understanding and fraternity of spirit which marked their relations during the war, have united with the trustees of the American Fellowships in French Universities to establish an organization to be known as the American Field Service Fellowships for French Universities. This organization proposes to award fellowships for advanced study in France to students selected from American colleges, universities, and industrial establishments, as well as fellowships for advanced study in American universities to French students. These fellowships will, when endowed, be named after the men of the American Field Service who died in France; and it is intended, if sufficient funds can be obtained, to name a fellowship in memory of each one of these men. The trustees of the American Field Service and a large number of those who served in it, or who contributed to and worked for it, feel that they could in no better way carry on in times of peace the work undertaken during the war, and the trustees have obtained from the courts authority to devote to this purpose the funds remaining in their hands.


AT a reunion of some six hundred members of the Field Service held in New York on May 7-9,1920, the American Field Service Association was organized, a constitution adopted and officers elected. The objects of this Association were defined in the constitution as follows:

The purpose of this Association shall be in general to perpetuate the memory of our life and work as volunteers with the French Army in the years from 1915 to 1917, to keep alive the friendships of those years, and to promote in the future mutual understanding and fraternal feeling between France and the United States, and in particular to arrange for future reunions, to publish and distribute the Field Service Bulletin, to coöperate with the Trustees of the American Field Service Fellowships for French Universities, to provide, through a committee in France, information and assistance for members of the Association and for Field Service Fellows when in France, and, as opportunity offers, to arrange for addresses by, and the entertainment of, Frenchmen visiting this country.

In opening the final session of the Reunion, Mr. Andrew thus expressed the dominant sentiment of the reunited Service:

We of the old Field Service have found ourselves to-day more than ever glad to come together. We are bound by the memories that we have in common of the greatest hours, and days, and months, and years, that we shall ever know; but we are bound also by the fact that we still speak in 1920 the same language that we spoke in the years from 1915 to 1918, and that we still have the same point of view and the same sentiments. We still have, and shall have until we die, the same reverence and affection for the blue-coated soldiers who were our comrades over there, and the same estimation and feeling for the valiant people, and for the very soil of France.

Whenever you encounter a Field Service man, you will find an ardent champion of the interests of France, quick to defend her from ignorant complaint, keen to expatiate upon her manifold virtues, above all, ready to repudiate and denounce any reflections upon her character, no matter whence they come.

A famous American general has said on several occasions, and has repeated the statement quite recently, that before he arrived in France the French people were ready to quit. The Field Service men who were in France long before the general came, know, and do not hesitate to say, that such a statement, while flattering our national vanity, has certainly no foundation in fact. And when any one, no matter how highly placed, characterizes France as militaristic, because she seeks to protect her homes and cities from future depredations, and her people from recurring slaughter, one can count upon the men of this Service, who witnessed the prodigious sufferings of France throughout the war, and who sensed the gentle and chivalrous spirit of her army and of her people, to be among the first to proclaim the falsity and injustice of such a conception.

With this spirit dominating the Field Service, and the desire so deeply rooted in its members to correct mutual misapprehensions and to promote mutual understanding and friendship between France and the United States, what can be more natural than the effort which has been launched to-day to transmit to future generations of French and American youth, the same spirit and the same desire! The fellowships that the Field Service hopes ultimately to establish not only will promote science and learning, but will tend to perpetuate, long after all of us are gone, the fraternity and understanding between the youth of the two countries which so strikingly characterized their relations in old Field Service days. They will build a noble and enduring monument to one hundred and twenty-seven comrades who gave all that they were, and all that they might ever have hoped to be, to the cause of America and of France. They will help to make immortal the spirit in which these men gave their lives.

His excellency, the French Ambassador, Monsieur Jusserand, who, from the very beginning of the War has been linked with the Field Service by countless acts of friendship, honored the reunion with his presence, and spoke in part as follows:

I have been for many years the Ambassador of France to the United States, but I remember with particular pleasure and pride that I was once the Ambassador in France of a power for which I have a feeling of deep affection and gratitude, viz., the American Field Service. I was asked by their chief, Mr. A. Piatt Andrew, to go and meet one of the great leaders of the world, Marshal Joffre, and to negotiate with him that he consent to write a preface for the definitive account they were preparing of their life in France. A most difficult task, indeed. The Marshal flatly refused. "I am no writer," he said.

"Well," I retorted, "you are a member of the French Academy."

"I was not elected there," he replied, "for anything I had written."

There was no doubt as to this. What the great warrior had written was not to be read black on white, but red on green in the valley of the Marne, and many other valleys and hills of France. I did not, however, admit defeat and I said: "Think that it is for those young Americans who, before their country came with all her might to the rescue, had enlisted with us, giving the example, showing the way, arousing their compatriots, helping our wounded."

"I shall write the preface," the Marshal answered.

Be assured that the feeling which dictated the decision of the Marshal is one we all have in France for you young Americans who have shown so much ardor for the great cause, who have risked so much and worked so efficiently. We owe you the life of many of our citizens who, without your timely help, would have increased the immense number of those dead whose tombs dot the ground all the way from Switzerland to Dunkirk.

The same warm-heartedness which caused you to enlist in the earliest and gloomiest period of the war is shown again by your decision to honor your dead and help toward a closer union between young men of education in France and America, by founding those 127 scholarships which will each bear the name of one of your members who died for the common cause. I compliment you from my heart. Accept, please, the thanks of a nation whose losses have, to be sure, been immense, since over eight millions of our youth served during the war and much more than half were either killed or wounded, but a nation that will recover and is already on the way to it, reclaiming the ravaged portions of France, trebling her export trade by comparison with last year, and that, in spite of the scarcity of coal and of machinery, is paying prodigious taxes which a bill recently voted has still increased by eight billion and a half of francs.

When you visit to-morrow the admirable Saint Thomas's church, you will notice, on the balustrade of the choir, a round medallion on which is engraved an image of the Reims cathedral. This medallion is made of a stone from that cathedral, and three smaller ones with a "fleur-de-lis" on each come, if I am not mistaken, from the cathedrals at Péronne, Soissons, and Saint-Quentin, a touching remembrance and a symbol. I feel confident that the monument of generosity and sympathy built by you and your compatriots in French hearts, through your labors and the valiance of your troops, will outlive throughout centuries even those of our sacred monuments which the fury of the invader has been unable to raze to the ground. Such souvenirs are of the sort that never dies.


THE following cables were received by Colonel Andrew and read by him at the Reunion Dinner held in the Hotel Pennsylvania, New York City, on May 8:

[Copy of Cablegram)

May 4, 1920

L'impérissable honneur des volontaires de l'American Field Service sera d'avoir donné leur aide à la France en péril sans que rien les y oblige que la voix de leur conscience. Leurs puissants et continuels efforts depuis les premiers combats jusqu'à la victoire finale ont fait l'admiration de tous. Fier d'avoir travaillé avec eux, je leur envoie, ainsi qu'à leurs chefs éminents, mon fraternel souvenir.

Capitaine AUJAY


The imperishable honor of the volunteers of the American Field Service is that they gave their aid to France in peril without other obligation than the voice of their conscience. Their strong and continual efforts from the first battles on to the final victory won the admiration of us all. Proud to have worked with them, I send to them and their distinguished leaders my fraternal regards.

Captain AUJAY


[Copy of Cablegram]

Paris, May 5, 1920

J'apprends avec émotion l'initiative si noble prise par l'American Field Service. Après avoir, dès les premières heures de la tempête universelle, affronté à dix mille kilomètres de la patrie, tous les combats, les survivants veulent encore fournir l'exemple, et joindre la générosité à la vaillance. Ils seront les bienvenus parmi nous --- les jeunes héros que vous nous enverrez. Nous entourerons leur âme, à la fois délicate et fière, de toute la sollicitude fraternelle dont déborde notre coeur. Et la grande France, victorieuse et meurtrie, cette France qui garde dans sa terre bouleversée les corps des héros disparus, se fera douce et tendre aux jeunes hommes qui viendront goûter sa culture, apprendre sa langue, ses usages, son esprit, et sa conscience.



I learn with emotion the noble initiative taken by the American Field Service. After having faced from the first hours of the universal tempest, all the combats, although ten thousand kilometres from their own homeland, those who have survived are now continuing to set an example, by adding generosity to valor. They will be welcome among us, --- the young heroes that you send us. We shall surround them, who have shown a spirit at once so sensitive and so daring, with all the fraternal solicitude in which our heart abounds. And Great France, victorious and wounded, this France which holds in her scarred soil the bodies of so many heroes that have disappeared, will be gentle and tender to the young men who will come to enjoy her culture, to learn her language, her customs, her spirit, and her conscience.



[Copy of Cablegram]

May 5, 1920

J'ai été personnellement témoin des magnifiques résultats obtenus par l'American Field Service, et du splendide courage déployé sur les champs de bataille de France par les volontaires des États Unis avant même l'entrée de leur pays dans la guerre Américaine. Tous les Français demeurent très reconnaissants à l'American Field Service, et tous seront heureux d'accueillir les jeunes Américains qui viendront recevoir dans nos établissements universitaires une partie de leur éducation.



I have personally witnessed the magnificent achievements of the American Field Service, and the splendid courage displayed on the French fields of battle by your volunteers even before the entry of their country into the A merican war. Every Frenchman remains very grateful to the American Field Service, and all will be happy to welcome the young Americans who will come to receive in our institutions a part of their education.



[Copy of Cablegram]

May 5, 1920

J'ai connu l'appui précieux que les volontaires de l'American Field Service engagés sur notre front avant l'entrée en guerre des États Unis, ont fourni à la cause de mon pays, et j'accueille avec plaisir le nouveau témoignage de leur sympathie manifesté par l'envoi en France des jeunes Américains afin de leur permettre d'achever leur éducation dans nos universités. Cette initiative est sûrement destinée à sceller pour toujours l'amitié de nos deux pays.



I have known the precious aid which the volunteers of the American Field Service, engaged upon our front before the entry of the United States into the war, have furnished to my country's cause, and I welcome with satisfaction this new evidence of their sympathy in sending to France young Americans to finish their education in our universities. This initiative is destined surely to seal forever the friendship of our countries.



[Copy of Cablegram]

May 6, 1920

France is grateful to the American Field Service, which intends to continue beyond the war the traditions started during the war, when in the early days of the struggle its original members had brought us such devoted help, the harbinger of the great effort which led us together to definitive victory.




[Copy of Cablegram]

New York, May 8, 1920

224 rue de Rivoli
Paris, France

Six hundred Field Service men from all parts of America reunited in New York, deeply moved by tributes of appreciation from leaders of beloved France, Deschanel, Clemenceau, Poincaré, Viviani, recall the immortal hours spent with her heroic soldiers, and testify again in the midst of the problems of peace to their undying reverence, confidence, and affection.

Chairman of Paris Committee of the Field Service.


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