"The war proved that the fighting spirit of my tribe was not squelched through reservation life. When duty called, we were there, and when we were called forth to fight for the cause of civilization, our people showed all the bravery of our warriors of old." - Mike Mountain Horse, First World War veteran. (1)
"Being from a reservation and barely able to speak English ... it was a sudden integration. It was a shock. I was stunned for two or three months while taking basic training." - Peter Whitecloud, Second World War veteran(2)
"On our way to Korea, I was outside on the ship standing on the rail just thinking about home and why I had to leave home. Yet, I was very glad I joined the army because my father was in the First World War. My brother was in World War Two and I thought I might as well join the army, too." - Allan Bird, Korean War veteran.(3)
In this publication, the terms Indian, Inuit, Métis and Native have the following meanings:
Indian (also Status Indian): A Native who is registered, or is entitled to be registered, with an Indian band (a band is a particular group of Indian people, having similar tribal and/or geographic origins) in accordance with Canada's Indian Act. Indians live both on and off reserves. Presently, there are approximately 430,000 Indians - roughly 60 per cent of whom live on reserves - nearly 600 bands and at least 2,200 reserves (some of which are unoccupied) in Canada.(4)
Inuit: A Native people indigenous to the Arctic and sub-Arctic regions of Canada. (The singular form is Inuk .) The Inuit population is estimated to be 39,000.(5)
Métis: There are two accepted meanings:
1. a Native people who are descendants of the original Métis community (i.e. of the children of Indian and French parents) of Western Canada, and
2. persons of mixed Native and non-Native (particularly European) descent.
The population of all Canadians who consider themselves Métis is roughly 160,000.
Native (also Aboriginal): All of Canada's first peoples, regardless of status. This includes the Indian, the Inuit and the Métis. The total Native population is estimated to be 850,000.
On November the 11th, Remembrance Day, we honour the sacrifices made by the nearly two million Canadian men and women who served their country in time of war. Included in this number are thousands of Native people who joined the armed forces and fought in foreign lands. Canada's first inhabitants responded quickly and in impressive numbers during the First World War, the Second World War and the Korean War. Their sacrifices and achievements were inspiring. This book is dedicated to the hundreds of Aboriginal Canadians who gave their lives while fighting for peace and freedom.
During the First World War, at least 4,000 Indian men volunteered to join the Allied forces in European battlefields. More than 3,000 Canadian Indians served during the Second World War, and it is estimated that several hundred Natives volunteered to help the United Nations defend South Korea during the Korean War.
Each time, the strength of the Native response was unexpected, for the wars seemed to have little to do with the everyday lives of the nation's first peoples, particularly of those living on Indian reserves. The battlefields were in foreign lands, thousands of kilometres away. In the First and Second World Wars, the roots of conflict were primarily embedded in European civilizations, and the war in Korea was likewise far removed from life on the reserve. Newspapers published countless articles on Native enlistment and, later, on the wartime experiences of Native soldiers.
In rallying with the rest of Canada, Aboriginal Canadians faced distinct challenges. At the outbreak of the First World War, a considerable number of Natives lived in remote communities and spoke neither English nor French. For many, joining a Canadian battalion marked their first exposure to the dress, terminology and unique customs of British military tradition.
Canada's Native soldiers met these challenges and others, as demonstrated by the number of decorations for bravery they were awarded. Battalion and regimental histories offer many examples of Native courage and achievements. On November the 11th - and always - we should remember that more than 500 Natives gave their lives during these three wars, defending values that were meaningful to all Canadians.
In producing this publication, Veterans Affairs Canada hopes that Canadians, particularly those who are learning about Canadian history in the classroom, will gain a better understanding of the contribution of Aboriginal veterans to this nation's wartime response. The accomplishments of Native veterans are a source of tremendous pride - to them, to their families, and to their communities. I hope this booklet will help to extend this pride to all Canadians and provide a measure of recognition to Canada's Aboriginal veterans for all they did, and all they gave up, to make our world a better place.
Finally, in describing the experiences of some twenty Native veterans, this publication attempts to present a general overview of the wartime sacrifices and achievements of all of Canada's Aboriginal peoples. However, readers should note that thousands of other stories could have been included in the following pages, and remain to be told another day.
Peter L. McCreath
Minister of Veterans Affairs
THE FIRST WORLD WAR
"For four short years our sons fought in European trenches beside their sons, our blood mingled with theirs, as for four hundred years in a different way our bloods had mixed. Four thousands of our Native brothers and now grandfathers saw the European homeland through the sights of rifles and the roar of cannon. Hundreds are buried in that soil, away from the lands of their birth. These Native warriors accounted well for themselves, and the Allied cause. ... They were courageous, intelligent and proud carriers of the shield."(6)
One in three: That was the proportion of able-bodied Canadian Indian men, of age to serve, who enlisted during the First World War.(7) Many Natives lived in isolated areas of the country, where the guns of Europe were especially distant. Yet, approximately 4,000 Canadian Indians left their homes and families to help fight an international war that raged in European battlefields.
One year into the war, Duncan Campbell Scott, the Deputy Superintendent General of the Department of Indian Affairs, reported the Indian response:
"I have pleasure in drawing attention to the fact that the participation of Great Britain in the war has occasioned expressions of loyalty from the Indians, and the offer of contributions from their funds toward the general expenses of the war or toward the Patriotic Fund. Some bands have also offered the services of their warriors if they should be needed."(8)
Scott would make similar statements in Indian Affairs' annual reports over the next five years, as his employees across the country noted increases in both the number of Indian recruits and the amount of money donated by reserve communities.
Despite these reports, the total number of Native volunteers is unknown.(9) In late 1915, regional officials of the Department of Indian Affairs were instructed to complete and submit "Return of Indian Enlistments" forms. However, in his annual reports, Scott stated that not all of the Indian recruits had been identified. Furthermore, since his department's main concern was Status Indians, its records rarely took into account the number of Inuit, Métis and other Canadian Natives who signed up. Enlistments in the territories and in Newfoundland (which had not yet entered Confederation) were also not recorded. It is safe to say that more than 4,000 Natives enlisted.
The Canadian Government, headed by Prime Minister Robert Borden, had not expected that so many Aboriginal people would volunteer. At first, it had hoped to discourage Native enlistment and initially adopted a policy of not allowing Indians to serve overseas. The policy stemmed from a belief that the enemy considered Natives to be "savage", and a fear that this stereotyped view would result in the inhumane treatment of any Aboriginal people who were taken prisoner.(10) However, the policy was not strictly enforced and was cancelled in late 1915 because of the large number of enlistment applications from Indians, as well as the Allies' pressing need for more troops.
Support from Native communities for the Allied war effort was by no means unanimous. For example, some band councils refused to help the Allied war effort unless Great Britain acknowledged their bands' status as independent nations. Such recognition was not granted.
Additionally, following the Canadian government's introduction of conscription - compulsory military service - in August 1917, many Indian leaders insisted that Indians should be excluded. In the past, during the negotiation of Indian treaties, some Western chiefs had requested and received assurances from the British government that Indians would not have to fight for Great Britain if it entered into a war.(11) The government was reminded of these promises many times and, in January 1918, exempted Indians from combatant duties through an Order-in-Council.
On a voluntary basis, however, Native enthusiasm for the war effort was evident across Canada. Some reserves were nearly depleted of young men. For example, only three men of the Algonquin of Golden Lake Band who were fit and who were of age to serve remained on their reserve.(12) Roughly half of the eligible Micmac and Maliseet men of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia signed up, and, although small, Saskatchewan's File Hills community offered practically all of its eligible men. In British Columbia, the Head of the Lake Band saw every single man between the ages of 20 and 35 volunteer.
In Winnipeg, one newspaper reported that "thirty descendants of Métis who fought at the side of Louis Riel in 1869-70 ... have just enlisted at Qu'Appelle. They are all members of the Society of French-Canadian Métis of that place. Their names are inscribed on the [Society's] roll of honour."(13)
News of the war did not easily reach some Canadian Native communities. Reserves in the Yukon and Northwest Territories and in northern sections of the provinces had fewer transportation and communication links with the rest of Canada. Natives living in these areas were often unaware of the war or were unable to enlist without great effort. Nevertheless, at least 15 Inuit - or people having some Inuit ancestry - from Labrador joined the 1st Newfoundland Regiment.(14) As well, approximately 100 Ojibwa from isolated areas north of Thunder Bay, Ontario, made their way to the nearest recruiting centre, in Port Arthur or Fort William.(15) Many of them served in the 52nd Canadian Light Infantry Battalion - and at least six were awarded medals for bravery.
One recruit with the 52nd, William Semia, a trapper for the Hudson's Bay Company and a member of the Cat Lake Band in Northern Ontario, spoke neither English nor French when he enlisted. Undeterred, he learned English from another Indian volunteer and later was often responsible for drilling platoons.
Although its council opposed reserve enlistment, the Iroquois Six Nations of the Grand River south of Brantford, Ontario, provided more soldiers than any other Canadian Indian band. Approximately 300 went to the front. In addition, members of this reserve, the most populous in Canada, donated hundreds of dollars to help war orphans in Britain and for other war-relief purposes.
Many of the Six Nations volunteers were originally members of the 37th Haldimand Rifles, a regiment in the non-permanent active militia based on the reserve. It provided most of the members of the 114th Canadian Infantry Battalion, which had recruited throughout the area. Joining the Grand River volunteers in this battalion were 50 Mohawks from Kahnawake, Quebec, and several Mohawks from Akwesasne. Some Natives from Western Ontario and Manitoba also became members. In the end, two of its companies, officers included, were composed entirely of Indians. In recognition of its large Indian make-up, the battalion adopted a crest featuring two crossed tomahawks below the motto, "For King and Country". As well, members of the Six Nations Women's Patriotic League embroidered a 114th flag, which they adorned with Iroquoian symbols.
Soon after it arrived in Great Britain in 1916, the 114th was disbanded to serve as reinforcements. Several ofits members ended up with the 107th Battalion, a Winnipeg unit that went overseas with hundreds of Indians from the Prairies and became first a pioneer battalion (16) and then part of an engineering brigade composed of more than 500 Native members.(17)
It is difficult to pinpoint reasons for the Native response. Many Native veterans volunteered for the same reasons other Canadians did, i.e. because their friends and relatives did, for patriotism, for the chance of adventure or simply to earn a guaranteed wage.
Some volunteered for reasons that were unique to their band or reserve. One member of the Mohawks of the Bay of Quinte Band attributes his reserve's high enlistment ratio to its ties to Great Britain: "We came over with the United Empire Loyalists from the United States. Our treaties are with the Crown, so, when the Crown calls, you go."(18)
One Native historian suggests that the Great War offered Indian men who lived on reserves an opportunity to assume a more active role.(19) According to his theory, reserve life had made the role of Indian men less important, a change to which many had difficulty adjusting. He also says, for some, the war presented a chance to escape boredom on the reserve.
Tradition was also a factor in the response. Natives in Canada had a well-established history of fighting on the side of Great Britain, dating back to the activities of the Mohawk Chief Joseph Brant during the 18th Century. Brant was just a teenager when he fought with the British in the Seven Years' War. As well, in 1775, he and 1,500 other members of the Six Nations Iroquois (or Long House) Confederacy fought alongside Great Britain's Royal Regiment during the American Revolution.(20)
Indian cooperation in British military activity continued over the years. Joseph Brant's youngest son, John, followed in his father's footsteps. As Captain of the Northern Confederate Indians, he fought against the Americans in the War of 1812.
Several Mohawks from present-day Quebec journeyed south to join the Ontario Iroquois during this war. The Americans felt their presence most in the second year of the war during the Battle at Beaver Dams, when 180 Mohawks from Kahnawake, Kanesatake and Akwesasne, along with 200 members of the Six Nations of the Grand River, thwarted an American military expeditionon its way to Fort George. During the two-hour battle, 15 Indians were killed and 25 were wounded.
In Western Canada, the Dakota held the Americans back at Prairie du Chien throughout 1813 and fought alongside the British and other Indian nations at Fort Meigs, Sandusky and Fort Stephenson. Many of the Dakota died of starvation the following winter after supply routes were cut off.(21)
In all, Great Britain awarded 96 Military General Service Medals to Canadian Indians for their military assistance between 1793 and 1814.(22)
Canadian Natives also helped British troops overseas. In 1884, during the Battle of Khartoum in the Sudan, the British put out a call for Canadian volunteers to help guide British soldiers up the Nile River. The soldiers were to provide some relief to the isolated men stationed there. General Lord Garnet Wolseley's group included nearly 400 Canadian boatmen - the Nile Voyageurs - 56 of whom were Mohawks (23), mostly from the Kahnawake band in Quebec, and 30 of whom were Ojibwa from Manitoba and Northern Ontario.(24) Chief Louis Jackson of Kahnawake recommended the design for the whaler-boats that were used on the voyage and became a river foreman. Afterward, he wrote a book about the experiences of the Kahnawake participants. Two Indians lost their lives during the perilous six-month, 19,000-kilometre expedition. This journey turned out to be for naught. The British troops were killed two days before the rescuers arrived.
Many Native recruits of the First World War followed in the footsteps of their veteran ancestors. One example is Cameron Brant, Joseph Brant's great-great-grandson. He commanded a platoon of the 4th Canadian Infantry Battalion. The 28-year-old lieutenant lost his life in 1915 near Ypres, Belgium, while leading a counterattack into the enemy's trenches.
For Cameron Brant and many other participants in the First World War, pride in past family achievements may have attracted them to the service. What these men probably did not realize was that they, in turn, would inspire future generations.
Snipers and Scouts
"When Samuel de Champlain joined a Huron-Algonquin war party in 1609 and killed two Iroquois with the shot from his harquebus, a new era began .... The only protection from the firearms and the greater killing power of the white man was in dispersion, sniping and ambush." - Military historian Fred Gaffen (25)
Most Canadians, Natives included, served in the infantry with the Canadian Corps in the Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF). Many Natives became snipers or reconnaissance scouts, drawing upon traditional hunting and military skills to deadly effect.
The duties were straightforward and dangerous. Snipers kept the enemy unnerved with their rifle-fire by shooting at targets from concealed positions called "nests".Scouts slipped behind the front lines in advance of an attack to determine the enemy's positions and capabilities.
Throughout the war, the Department of Indian Affairs received scores of letters from the front commending Native marksmen and scouts. As well, at least 50 decorations were awarded to Canadian Natives for their bravery while sniping and scouting and for performing other feats of valour during the war. Though the following men are few in number, they represent a larger group of unnamed Native soldiers, who placed a greater cause before their own lives.
A Peaceful Man
The most highly decorated Canadian Native in the First World War was Francis Pegahmagabow.(26) An Ojibwa from the Parry Island Band in Ontario, he was awarded the Military Medal(MM) plus two bars for bravery in Belgium and France.(27) Soldiers who had been awarded the MM and later performed similarly heroic acts could receive up to two bars to it, denoting further awards. Pegahmagabow was one of 39 members of the CEF who received the maximum two bars to the MM.
Pegahmagabow enlisted with the 23rd Regiment (Northern Pioneers) in August 1914 - almost immediately after war was declared. Previously, he had worked along the Great Lakes as a marine fireman for the Department of Marine and Fisheries. Within weeks of volunteering, he became one of the original members of the 1st Canadian Infantry Battalion, which, along with the rest of the 20,000-strong 1st Canadian Division, landed in France in February 1915.
Sniping was the specialty of the man his fellow soldiers called "Peggy". It has been written of him, " His iron nerves, patience and superb marksmanship helped make him an outstanding sniper."(28) In addition, Pegahmagabow developed a reputation as a superior scout.
The 1st Battalion experienced heavy action almost as soon as it arrived on the battlefield. It fought at Ypres, where the enemy introduced a new deadly weapon, poison gas, and on the Somme, where Pegahmagabow was shot in the leg. He recovered and made it back in time to return with his unit to Belgium.
In November 1917, the 1st Battalion joined the assault near the village of Passchendaele. Here, roughly 20,000 Allied soldiers crawled from shell crater to shell crater, through water and mud. With two British divisions, the Canadian Corps attacked and took the village, holding it for five days, until reinforcements arrived. The Allies suffered 16,000 casualties at Passchendaele, and Corporal Pegahmagabow earned his first bar to the MM.
His citation reads, "At Passchendaele Nov.6th/7th, 1917, this NCO [non-commissioned officer] did excellent work. Before and after the attack he kept in touch with the flanks, advising the units he had seen, this information proving the success of the attack and saving valuable time in consolidating. He also guided the relief to its proper place after it had become mixed up."(29)
It is not known how Pegahmagabow earned the MM itself and its second bar. It has been said, though, that he merited them during the Second Battle of Ypres in 1916 and at Amiens in 1918.(30)
In April 1919, Pegahmagabow was invalided to Canada, having served for nearly the entire war. Afterward, he joined the Algonquin Regiment in the non-permanent active militia and, following in the steps of his father and grandfather, became chief of the Parry Island Band and later a councillor. A member of Canada's Indian Hall of Fame,(31) Pegahmagabow died on the reserve in 1952.
Francis Pegahmagabow rarely spoke of his military accomplishments. However, his son Duncan recalls being told that his father was responsible for capturing 300 enemy soldiers." My mother [Eva] told me he used to go behind enemy lines, rub shoulders with the enemy forces and never get caught."(32) Duncan also remembers that Pegahmagabow "felt very strongly about his country". Mostly, he sees his father as a peaceful man: "He was always saying how we have to live in harmony with all living things in this world."
Sharpshooter: Henry Norwest
One of the most famous Canadian snipers in the First World War was a Métis marksman who went by the name of Henry Louis Norwest. Norwest was born in Fort Saskatchewan, Alberta, of French-Cree ancestry. In his nearly three years of service with the 50th Canadian Infantry Battalion, the lance-corporal achieved a sniping record of 115 fatal shots.(33) The former ranch-hand and rodeo performer also merited the Military Medal and bar, making him one of roughly 830 members of the CEF to be awarded this double honour.(34)
Norwest's career in the army did not begin so gloriously. He enlisted in January 1915 under the name Henry Louie, and was discharged after three months for misbehaviour.(35) Eight months later, he signed up again, under a new name and with a fresh slate.(36)
Ultimately, Norwest proved to be an inspiration to his unit. A fellow soldier wrote of him: "Our famous sniper no doubt understood better than most of us the cost of life and the price of death. Henry Norwest carried out his terrible duty superbly because he believed his special skill gave him no choice but to fulfil his indispensable mission. Our 50th [Battalion] sniper went about his work with passionate dedication and showed complete detachment from everything while he was in the line. ... Yet when we had the rare opportunity to see our comrade at close quarters, we found him pleasant and kindly, quite naturally one of us, and always an inspiration."(37)
Sniping was a hazardous infantry role. Most snipers worked in pairs, with one partner shooting and the other observing - scanning the surroundings and reporting enemy movements. It is said Norwest possessed all the skills required of a sniper: excellent marksmanship, an ability to keep perfectly still for very long periods and superb camouflage techniques. Much of his time was spent in "No Man's Land", the dreaded area between opposing forces. As well, Norwest and his observer often slipped behind enemy lines.
The battalion's star marksman earned the MM in 1917 at a peak on Vimy Ridge dubbed "the Pimple". The Canadian Corps, part of a massive Allied offensive, was tasked with capturing the Ridge. Although previous Allied attempts to take it had failed, the elaborately planned Canadian assault succeeded. Most of the Ridge was taken on the first day, April 9. Three days later, the two remaining enemy positions, including the Pimple, were conquered.
According to his award citation, Norwest showed "great bravery, skill and initiative in sniping the enemy after the capture of the Pimple. By his activity he saved a great number of our men's lives."
More than a year after the Battle of Vimy Ridge, Norwest was awarded a bar to his MM. During the Battle of Amiens, in France, Allied forces successfully attacked an important salient. They surprised the enemy completely, managing to advance 19 kilometres in three days. For his part, Norwest destroyed several enemy machine-gun posts and achieved a sniping record that was a battalion high.
A week later, the 50th was moving into position for its next assignment when the sharpshooter held his final post. On August 18, three months before the war ended, Norwest and two others were looking for a nest of troublesome enemy snipers. A sniper's bullet hit the Métis marksman, killing him instantly. For the members of his battalion, a genuine hero had been lost.
Brothers in Arms
Two sons of the Six Nations Cayuga chief, Alexander George Smith, served overseas as officers and both were awarded the Military Cross (MC) for gallantry.(38) Alexander Jr. and Charles Smith enlisted in Toronto three months after the outbreak of the war. Until then, the militia had been the focus of their adult lives. Both were officers in the Haldimand Rifles before the war and, because of this experience, were commissioned officers after enlisting in the regular force.
The eldest, Alexander, who had served in the militia for 17 years, earned his MC in France in September 1916 during the second Allied assault on the Somme. A lieutenant with the 20th Battalion, Smith headed a specialty unit charged with finding suitable locations for stockpiling ammunition.(39) Along with a scouting unit, his group was the first in the battalion to go forward. Once his task was accomplished, he joined in the battle.
Smith's citation explains that on the second day of the assault, "he proceeded with a party of bombers and captured an enemy trench and 50 prisoners, displaying the greatest courage throughout. He was twice buried by shells but stuck to his post."
Throughout their three weeks in action on the Somme, the 20th Battalion suffered 430 casualties, including 111 dead. The lieutenant was one of the wounded; however, he recovered and later returned to his unit.
In April 1917, after falling ill, Smith returned to Canada. The following October, he was posted to a training camp at Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario. Many soldiers from Poland trained here. Smith had been promoted captain and served as adjutant, the commanding officer's assistant. When the war ended, the captain was named an Officer of the Order of the Black Star, a Polish order, for his distinguished service at the camp. He became one of only five Canadians to receive this honour.(40)
In July 1918, Captain Smith returned to his home in Hagersville on the Six Nations Grand River Reserve, where he later became chief.
Like his older brother, Charles Denton Smith began the war with the 20th Battalion, although he ended up with the 18th. Between his service with the two battalions he was a recruiting officer on the reserve. With 10 years of experience in the militia, he quickly rose to the rank of captain. Smith earned his MC in France on November 9, 1918 - two days before the war ended.
The Allies had finally broken through the enemydefences along the Western Front and were advancing steadily eastward. Smith's battalion was fighting its way toward Mons, Belgium. According to his citation, he "led his platoon forward with such rapidity that he surprised a party of [enemy] sappers(41) preparing to blow up a road mine." The party was stopped as the fuse was being ignited. As well, Smith personally captured an enemy machine-gun from its crew later that day.
The 18th Battalion arrived in Mons November 11, 1918, officially the last day of the war. Captain Smith returned safely to Canada six months later.
A Veteran of Two Wars
Soldiering was not new to Private George McLean. A rancher from the Head of the Lake Band in the Okanagan district of British Columbia, McLean had served with the Canadian Mounted Rifles during the South African (or Boer) War at the turn of the century. More than a decade later, he became one of nearly 2,000 members of the CEF to earn the Distinguished Conduct Medal (DCM) for distinguished conduct in the field, the second-highest award for gallantry available to non-commissioned officers and privates in the Great War.(42)
McLean enlisted in Vernon, British Columbia, in October 1916 and sailed for Great Britain almost immediately. He was in France with the 54th Battalion in December.
In April 1917, during the Battle of Vimy Ridge, McLean launched a daring solo attack on a group of enemy soldiers. He was armed with about a dozen Mills bombs - small grenades nicknamed quot;pineapples", which exploded violently.
McLean's attack was extremely effective. The private's citation describes the results: "Single-handed he captured 19 prisoners, and later, when attacked by five more prisoners who attempted to reach a machine-gun, he was able - although wounded - to dispose of them unaided, thus saving a large number of casualties."
During this action, McLean was shot in the arm by a sniper and was returned to Canada for medical treatment. He went back to British Columbia, and eventually became a fireman in the Vancouver region. He died in 1934.
War in Peace
"I'll never forget the first night. I stayed out most of the night, watching the flares go up over No Man's Land, like fireworks, and hearing the canons and bursts of rifle and machine-gun fire." - Sam Glode(43)
Sam Glode joined the CEF at the age of 35, enticed by the security of regular pay, plus food and clothes.(44) Before the war began, this Micmac from Nova Scotia had been a lumberjack, as well as a hunting and fishing guide. In 1915, he became an infantry soldier and soon after, assumed a new occupation, as a Royal Canadian Engineer (RCE) in Belgium and France.
For most of the Great War, Glode served with a tunnelling company of the 6th Field Company and Battalion, RCE. The company dug tunnels in Belgium, carved dugouts at Vimy Ridge and patched up roads near Amiens. When the Armistice was announced, Glode was back in Belgium, about to earn the DCM.
Although the war had officially ended, Allied soldiers were still active. The Canadian Corps was advancing toward Germany, where it would later assume occupation duties. Corporal Glode's company was in the lead, searching for mines and demolition charges.
On the 19th and 20th of November, Glode personally removed 450 charges. His DCM citation states, "He showed great devotion to duty and an utter disregard of persona ldanger."
Sam Glode returned to Nova Scotia in the spring of 1919 and resumed his hunting and guiding occupations. He died at Camp Hill Hospital in Halifax in 1957.
Two Brave "Van Doos"
At least two Native soldiers serving with le22e Bataillon canadien-français(45) - Quebec's famous"Van Doos" - were awarded the Military Medal for bravery.
In February 1918, 20-year-old Private William Cleary, a Montagnais and former lumberjack from Pointe-Bleue, Quebec, volunteered to join a raiding party headed for an enemy trench near Lens, France. Afterward, when the raiders returned to their own trenches, they discovered that two of their group had been left behind. Cleary immediately returned to the enemy position and, with help from three others, brought back the missing men, both of whom had been wounded.
Three months later, the private suffered a gunshot wound, which forced him to recuperate in Great Britain. Cleary returned to Canada in February 1919 and, later that year, received the MM from the Prince of Wales, the future Edward VIII.
On August 15, 1917, the opening day of the Battle of Hill 70 in France, Private Joseph Roussin, a Mohawk from Quebec's Kanesatake Band, merited his medal for carrying out a successful solo attack against eight enemy soldiers. The former lumberjack came back with three prisoners and a gash in his arm from an enemy bayonet. Fortunately, the wound healed, and he returned to action one month later.
In the history of the battalion, Roussin is remembered as one of the battalion's "two famous military scouts" (Cleary is the other): "In the chaplain's hut ...another casualty has just been given first aid. One of the scouts from the Van Doos has been wounded in the wrist. Roussin, an Indian, is the most wounded man in the Regiment, perhaps in the entire British Army. This one will earn him a ninth woundstripe. It's starting to become old hat to him; he's patched up and heads back to his post!"(46)
Roussin survived the war and returned to Canada in late 1918.
Runner: Tom Longboat
Thomas Charles Longboat did not receive any awards for bravery. He was not killed in the thick of battle while performing a daring feat above and beyond the call of duty. Rather, he is an example of the selfless response of Canadians to the chaos spreading throughout Europe.
An Onondaga from the Six Nations Grand River Reserve, Longboat had a compelling reason not to enlist: He was a world champion long-distance runner. In 1907, he won the Boston Marathon (a distance of approximately 40 kilometres) in record time, eaving his closest competitor four-fifths of a kilometre behind.(47) His status as a racing celebrity was solidified in 1909, when he won the world professional marathon championships at Madison Square Garden in New York City.
His running had earned him thousands of dollars by February 1916 when, at the age of 29, he set aside his athletic career to enlist. Though the rewards were substantially less, he did not quit racing. As a despatch carrier with the 107th Pioneer Battalion in France, Longboat ran messages and orders between units. He also kept in competitive form by racing in inter-battalion sporting contests, many of which he won. At the 1918 Canadian Corps Dominion Day competitions, Longboat won the eight-mile [13-kilometre] race.(48)
The famous runner was wounded twice during his time of service. Once he was declared dead, but he survived the war and returned to Canada in 1919. Tom Longboat died in 1949 at the age of 62. He is a member of the Canadian Sports Hall of Fame and the Indian Hall of Fame.
Native women also made their share of sacrifices during the war. One example is Edith Anderson Monture, a nurse who served overseas at an American hospital base.
The youngest of eight children, Edith Anderson was born in 1890 on the Six Nations Grand River Reserve. As a young woman, she was determined to become a nurse, but found few opportunities to train in Canada. She therefore studied at the New Rochelle School of Nursing in New York State and, after becoming a registered nurse in 1914, worked at an American elementary school.
In 1917, 27-year-old Anderson and 19 other nurses, 14 of whom were also Canadian, joined the U.S. Medical Corps. Within months, they were in Vittel, France, at Buffalo Base Hospital 23, formerly a resort hotel. Miss Anderson spent most of her time at the hospital, treating soldiers who had been shot or gassed. Occasionally, she was sent to other medical centres to help, giving her an opportunity to see more of the country. She sometimes saw more than she cared to.
In 1983, at the age of 93, the veteran nurse was interviewed by a reporter from her local newspaper, The Grand River Sachem. Bright and forthcoming, she shared the following memories:(49)
"We would walk right over where there had been fighting. It was an awful sight - buildings in rubble, trees burnt, spent shells all over the place, whole towns blown up."
Her recollections of a 20-year-old Americanp atient at Hospital 23 were particularly strong:
"He'd been shot in the neck, but he was getting along fine. Then one night I was on duty and he began haemorrhaging quite badly. We did have orderlies, but they were never to be found, and it happened that a boy who brought bread for the Americans was the one who helped me do the running around.
"We finally managed to stop the bleeding and settled the boy down. The next night he was real good, but then he haemorrhaged again the next. The night after that he died.
"It was quite a shock to all of us because we were confident he was going to be alright. I got his mother's address in the States and wrote her telling her I was with her son when he passed away."
After the war, Anderson returned to the Six Nations Reserve. Here she was contacted by the American boy's parents, who invited her to visit them in Iowa. She did. Eventually, the young man's parents visited Vittel, and, on the return trip, exchanged a visit with Anderson at her home.
Edith Anderson married Claybran Monture in 1919 and subsequently raised four children. She continued nursing, working on a casual basis at a hospital on the reserve until 1955. She is presently 101 years old.
THE SACRIFICES AND ACHIEVEMENTS
The First World War, with its trench warfare, poison gas and machine-guns, destroyed virtually a generation of young Canadian men. Among them were at least 300 Canadian Native soldiers.(50) Additional lives were lost to illness, particularly tuberculosis, which thrived in the damp trenches of Europe. Countless Natives returned to Canada with the beginnings of this often-fatal disease.
Over four years, Canadian Natives participated and earned medals for valour in practically every major land battle.
They also supported the Allied cause at home, donating money and goods to the various relief and patriotic funds, and investing in victory bonds. By the time of the Armistice, donations from Indians to the various war relief funds totalled more than $44,000-a sizeable figure for the times. Native women, like other Canadian women, were active in this area. They formed patriotic leagues, Red Cross societies and other charity groups, and then collected clothes, money and food for shipment overseas.
The wartime contributions of Natives did not go unnoticed. For example, when the Prince of Wales visited the Brantford area in October 1919, he presented the Six Nations with a bronze tablet to commemorate the 88 of its members who were killed in, or as a result of, military action.(51)
And in Indian Affairs' 1918-1919 Annual Report, Duncan Scott wrote, "In this year of peace, the Indians of Canada may look with just pride upon the part played by them in the great war both at home and on the field of battle. They have well and nobly upheld the loyal traditions of their gallant ancestors who rendered invaluable service to the British cause in 1776 and in 1812, and have added thereto a heritage of deathless honour which is an example and an inspiration for their descendants."(52)
Little did he know how soon their example and inspiration would be needed.
"We, your sons and daughters of today, remember you, spirits of past wars and battles. We stand for peace on this planet called Mother Earth. ... We are armed not with the terrible weapons of technology but with the wisdom of the Elders. We have not forgotten, we will not forget. We will live for our children and the future."(97)
War should never be glorified. Yet, the sacrifices and achievements of those who participated must never be forgotten. We owe it to our veterans to keep the memory of their service alive.
To this end, members of Canada's Native community have been forming veterans organizations and recording their wartime experiences in newsletters, books and films. In the introduction to We Were There, a collection of war-related memories produced by the Saskatchewan Indian Veterans Association, the editor explains, "I wanted to publish ... to let Indian children know that their fathers and grandfathers fought for the freedom we now cherish. Many of the Indian veterans who fought for this freedom did not come back. This book is meant to honour those who can still tell their stories, and those who were leftbehind."(98)
Canadian Native veterans are proud of their wartime contributions. Some have made commemorative pilgrimages back to the battlefields in which they fought decades before. Cairns and memorials have been erected in prominent locations on several reserves. Residents gather around them each November 11 for Remembrance Day ceremonies.
Native veterans have reason to be proud. More than 7,000 Indians served in the First and Second World Wars and the Korean War, and an unknown number of Inuit, Métis and other Natives also participated. One Native veterans group estimates that 12,000 Natives served in the three wars.(99)
On each occasion, Canada's Native soldiers overcame cultural challenges and made impressive sacrifices and contributions to help the nation in its efforts to restore world peace. It was an incredible response - consistent with a remarkable tradition.
"When I was at Rossport, on Lake Superior, in 1914, some of us landed from our vessel to gather blueberries near an Ojibwa camp. An old Indian recognized me, and gave me a tiny medicine-bag to protect me, saying that I would shortly go into great danger. The bag was of skin, tightly bound with a leather thong. Sometimes it seemed to be as hard as rock, at other times it appeared to contain nothing. What really was inside it I do not know. I wore it in the trenches, but lost it when I was wounded and taken to a hospital."
- Francis Pegahmagabow, First World War veteran (100)
"The Germans kept coming, swarming over the trenches in attack. Our machine-guns got red hot and the air was filled with smoke. When the fighting finished, I went over to the front line to see the damage. It was an awful mess - Germans and Canadians lay all over, some wounded, some dead. I went back to rest and wrote to Blanche: 'The boys have gone, but not their sweat nor their blood. That will remain forever.'"
- James Redsky, First World War veteran (101)
"The Colonel begins to read the 36 names of our fallen. Tears are in his eyes. He falters and hands the paper to the Adjutant who calmly folds the paper and puts it in his pocket and quietly says: 'It is not necessary. They were comrades.We remember.'"
- James Brady, Second World War veteran.(102)
"A friend of mine, he got killed over there. ... In the evening we were sitting side by side and a sniper got him. Shot him right between the eyes, you know. I don't know why they didn't pick me."
- Adolphus Ghostkeeper, Second World War veteran(103)
"I'm very glad I went - I wouldn't like to do it again. It was bloody tiresome. Wars are interesting experiences so long as you live through them."
- Horace Kelly, Second World War veteran (104)
"We're proud of the word 'volunteer'. Nobody forced us, we were good Canadians - patriots - we fought for our country."
- Syd Moore, Second World War veteran (105)
"Many paid the supreme sacrifice and are buried in those beautiful Canadian military cemeteries in Europe. We personally found graves in France, Belgium and Holland when, in June 1990, 28 Native veterans of Canada visited our former battlefields."
- Andrew George, Second World War veteran and President of the B.C. Chapter of the National Indian Veterans Association (106)
"One time we were sitting up on a hill looking down and I'll bet you there were 10,000 [South Korean refugees] moving. My thoughts went back to my own history - when my relatives moved from the United States. I thought, 'Wow, we did this once.'"
- Ronald Lowry, Korean War veteran (107)
"In Cree we say 'Kahgee pohn noten took' on Remembrance Day. It means, 'the fighting has ended'."
- Irene Plante, veteran's widow (108)
I went for a walk, along about dark
My path took me through the Veterans' Park.
The lights were shining clear and bright
So I stopped for a while under a light.
I paused for a moment to sit and remember
What it must have been like in that November.
When friends and loved ones came back from war
And others whose faces we'd see no more.
All those brave men who fought and died
We all remember with so much pride.
I hope there will never be another war
And there shall be peace for ever more.
- Landon Hill, student (109)
1. Mr. Mountain Horse was a member of the Blood Band in Alberta. The quotation is an excerpt from his book MyPeople: The Bloods, p. 144.
2. From the Sioux Valley Band in Manitoba, Mr. Whitecloud is quoted in Lindsay Kines, "War Greeted Native with Two Shocks," The Brandon Sun, November 12, 1982, p. 2.
3. From Saskatchewan's Montreal Lake Band, Mr. Bird is quoted in Saskatchewan Indian Veterans Association, We Were There, p. 26.
4. Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, Basic Departmental Data, p. 1; and Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, Population Projections of Registered Indians, pp. 49, 63-65.
5. Information provided January 1992 by the Secretary of State of Canada, Social Trends Analysis Directorate, from material prepared by the Demography Division of Statistics Canada.
The First World War
6. "World War I-1914-1918," AMMSA , 2, 35 (November 9, 1984), p. 9.
7. Department of Indian Affairs, Annual Report, 1918-1919, p. 13.
8. Department of Indian Affairs, AnnualReport, 1913-1914, p. xxvii.
9. However, various Native groups and individuals are presently conducting research to determine them.
10. National Archives of Canada RG 24, Vol.1221, file HQ 593-1-7.
11. These assurances are documented in Alexander Morris, The Treaties of Canada.
12. Duncan Scott, "The Canadian Indians and the Great World War," Guarding the Channel Ports, p.297.
13. La Libre Parole [Winnipeg], April 20, 1916. From A.-H. de Tremaudan, Hold High Your Heads, p.164.
14. Fred Gaffen, Forgotten Soldiers, p.29.
15. Active recruiting by militia regiments in the Hudson Bay area may account for this high number. From National Archives of Canada RG 24, Vol. 1221, file HQ 593-1-7.
16. Using picks, spades and other tools, pioneers prepared the way for the main armed force.
17. James Dempsey, "Indians of the Prairie Provinces in World War I" (M.A. dissertation), pp. 53 and 120.
18. Korean War veteran Ronald Lowry in a June 1991 conversation with the author.
19. Dempsey, "Persistence of a Warrior Ethic among the Plains Indians," Alberta History, 36, 1(Winter 1988).
20. George Stanley, "The Significance of the Six Nations Participation in the War of 1812," Ontario History, LV, 4 (December 1963), p. 217.
21. Peter Elias, The Dakota of the Canadian Northwest, pp. 8-13.
22. Military General Service; Egypt Medal; North West Canada, p. 23.
23. Louis Jackson, Our Caughnawagas in Egypt , p. 1.
24. David-Michael Thompson, "Ojibway and Mohawk Voyageurs in the Nile Expedition of 1884-1885"(unpublished research paper), 1990.
25. Gaffen, p. 11.
26. Ibid, p. 28.
27. King George V introduced the Military Medal in 1916 to recognize non-commissioned officers and men for bravery in the field. After the Victoria Cross and the Distinguished Conduct Medal, the MM was the highest decoration for gallantry that could be won by non- commissioned soldiers. It was awarded to more than 12,000 members of the CEF during the Great War. From Harry and Cindy Abbink, The Military Medal: CanadianRecipients, pp. vii-xiii.
28. Gaffen, p. 28.
29. First World War citations were provided by Veterans Affairs Canada; Second World War citations by the Department of National Defence.
30. Report of the Parry Sound Indian Agent to the Secretary, Department of Indian Affairs, 20 May 1919. From National Archives of Canada RG 10, Vol. 6771, file 452-30.
31. The Indian Hall of Fame was conceived in 1967 by the Canadian Association in Support of the Native Peoples. Housed in the museum of the Woodland Cultural Centre at Brantford, Ontario, its goal is to honour Natives who have contributed to the advancement of Canada's Native society.
32. From a February 1991 conversation with theauthor.
33. Victor Wheeler, The 50th Battalion in No Man's Land, p. 320.
34. The Abbinks, p. xiii.
35. "First World War Indian Hero Almost Forgotten," The Leader-Post, November 11, 1989, p. C10.
36. Norwest was his father's surname; Louie was his mother's.
37. Wheeler, p. 289.
38. The MC was similar to the MM, except that it was reserved for commissioned officers up to the rank o fcaptain and, later, major. It was awarded to at least 2,800 members of the CEF. From Taprell Dorling, Ribbons and Medals, p.29; and Charles Stewart, Overseas: The Lineages and Insignia of the Canadian Expeditionary Force, p. 166.
39. D.J. Corrigall, The History of the Twentieth Canadian Battalion (Central Ontario Regiment) Canadian Expeditionary Force, p. 79.
40. Francis Dowe, The Canadian Military Register of Foreign Awards, p. 25.
41. The equivalent rank of privates in the infantry, sappers were members of the Royal Canadian Engineers who dug trenches and tunnels, and performed demolition duties.
42. Stewart, p. 166.
43. Thomas Raddall, "Sam Glode: Travels of a Micmac," Cape Breton's Magazine, 35 (January1984), pp. 26-27.
44. Ibid, p. 26.
45. Le 22e bataillon later became leRoyal 22e Régiment.
46. Translation of text from Joseph Chaballe, Histoire du 22e Bataillon canadien-français, pps. 327-328.
47. Woodland Cultural Centre, "Tom Longboat," research file.
48. Joe Keeper, another Nativeathlete-turned-soldier and a recipient of the Military Medal, placed first in the one-and three-mile events.
49. Bill Johnston, "First Canadian Nurse Overseas," The Grand River Sachem, October 19, 1983, p. 15.
50. Gaffen, p. 79.
51. The name, Cameron Brant, is included on the tablet.
52. Department of Indian Affairs, Annual Report, 1918-1919, p. 13.
The Second World War
53. "World War II-1939-1945," AMMSA, 2, 35 (November 9, 1984), p. 9.
54. Dr. Harold McGill in Department of Mines and Resources, Annual Report, 1939-1940, p. 183. Indian Affairs became a branch of this department in 1936.
55. National Archives of Canada RG 10, Vol. 6768, file 452-20, part 5.
56. House of Commons, Debates, April 28, 1942, p. 1960.
57. Louis Dumont from Fishing Lake, Alberta in Diane Parenteau, "Battles, Friendships from War Remembered by Métis Vet.," Windspeaker, 7, 36 (November 10, 1989), p. 5.
58. James Brady in Julia Harrison, Métis: People between Two Worlds, p. 115.
59. James Dempsey in a September 1991 conversation with the author.
60. "The Dreavers of Mistawasis: A Saga of Service,"The Saskatchewan Indian (December 1972), p. 5.
61. In 1948, Chief Dreaver's son Harvey, a sergeant killed in 1944 while serving in Belgium with the Regina Rifles, was posthumously awarded the Belgian Croix de guerre avec Palme for outstanding contributions toward the liberation of Belgium.
62. Gaffen, p. 64.
63. Stanley, In the Face of Danger, p. 347.
64. Ibid, pp. 245-246.
65. Martin Ashton, The Canadian Medal Rolls , p. 11.
66. Ibid, p. 11.
67. Stanley, In the Face of Danger, p.269.
68. McKenzie Porter, "Warrior," Maclean's (September 1, 1952), p. 49.
69. Bruce Sealey and Peter Van De Vyvere, Manitobans in Profile: Thomas George Prince, p. 26.
70. Awarded to soldiers of the United States, or friendly forces serving in action against an enemy of the U.S., the Silver Star Medal followed the Distinguished Service Medal in the order of precedence for American medals, ranking sixthoverall. From Dowe, p. 219.
71. Ibid, p. 31.
72. G.L. Cassidy, Warpath: The Story of the Algonquin Regiment, p. 27.
73. Nina Burnham in a November 1991 letter to the author.
74. "Dr. Gilbert C. Monture," Tekawennake, May 12, 1971, p. 1.
75. Barbara Malloch, Monture's daughter, in a December 1991 conversation with the author.
76. "Dr. Gilbert C. Monture," Tekawennake, February 8, 1978, p. 15.
77. Citation provided by Government House.
78. Dowe, p. 153.
79. From a December 1991 conversation with the author.
80. Gaffen, pp. 79 and 131.
81. Ibid, p. 40; and Dempsey, "TheCanadian Indians and World War Two" (unpublished research paper), pp. 6-7.
82. Raymond Prince in a November 1991 conversation with the author.
83. Gaffen, p. 40. For two interesting accounts of war-brides adapting to reserve life see M. Olga McKenna, Micmac by Choice (Halifax: Formac Publishing Co. Ltd, 1990), and Anne Rosemary Paudash, "I Married an Indian," Maclean's (December 1, 1951).
The Korean War
84. "And to Tomorrow...," AMMSA, 2, 35 (November 9, 1984), p. 9.
85. Indian Affairs at this time was part of the Department of Citizenship and Immigration.
86. The number of references made to Korean War veterans in Native newspapers and in communications during research supports this view. In a March 1991 letter to the author, Sam Urquhart, President of the Korea Veterans Association of Canada, agreed that 73 seems a low estimate.
87. Sealey and Van De Vyvere, p. 35.
88. Formerly called the Distinguished Unit Citation, this decoration is awarded to units of United States armed forces and co-belligerent nations for extraordinary heroism in action against an armed enemy.
89. Sealey and Van De Vyvere, p. 1.
90. An able seaman is the navy's equivalent of an army private.
91. A CPO 2 is the equivalent to a master warrant officer in the army.
92. The Chief Boatswain's Mate is the NCO who oversees watches, drills and other shipboard routines.
93. Sonar (sound navigation and ranging) systems detect objects underwater by reflecting or emitting sound.
94. From a December 1991 letter to the author.
95. From a May 1991 letter to the author.
96. From a June 1991 conversation with the author.
97. "And to Tomorrow," AMMSA,2, 35 (November 9, 1984), p. 9.
98. Gordon Ahenakew in Saskatchewan Indian Veterans Association, We Were There, p. 3.
99. Andrew George, President of the British Columbia Chapter of the National Indian Veterans Association - a group that has been working on a national survey of Native veterans- in a March 1991 letter to the author.
100. Diamond Jenness, The Ojibwa Indians of Parry Island, p. 53.
101. An Ojibwa from Shoal Lake, Ontario, Mr. Redsky is quoted in James Stevens, ed., Great Leader of the Ojibway: Mis-quona-queb, p. 17.
102. A Métis leader from Alberta, Mr. Brady wrote this text in his war diary, which was published in Murray Dobbin, The One-and-a-Half Men, p. 143.
103. Mr. Ghostkeeper, a Métis from Vancouver, provided this quotation in February 1990.
104. Mr. Kelly, a Haida from Vancouver and the son of Peter Kelly, DD, a renowned missionary, teacher and spokesperson for British Columbia Natives, provided this quotation in February 1990.
105. Mr. Moore, a member of the Moose Factory Cree Band in Ontario, provided this quotation in the CBC television program, On the Road Again: A Remembrance Day Special,November 12, 1990.
106. From a March 1991 letter to the author.
107. From a June 1991 conversation with the author.
108. Mrs. Plante is quoted in "'Cree Boys'Contribution Not Recognized," Kahtou, November 21,1988, p. 6.
109. In 1987, Mr. Hill won the Remembrance Day poetry contest sponsored by the Six Nations (Ohsweken) Veterans Association. His poem was published in Tekawennake,October 22, 1987, p. 10., and is reprinted with permission.
Abbink, Harry, and Cindy Abbink. The MilitaryMedal: Canadian Recipients. Calgary: Alison Publishing Co.,1987.
Ashton, Martin. The Canadian Medal Rolls:Distinguished Conduct and Military Medal (1939-1945 and 1950-1953). Toronto: The Charlton Press, 1983.
Burhans, Robert D. The First Special Service Force, A Canadian/American Wartime Alliance: The Devil's Brigade.Agincourt: Methuen Publications, 1947.
Cassidy, G.L. Warpath: The Story of the Algonquin Regiment, 1939-1945. Toronto: The Ryerson Press, 1948.
Chaballe, Joseph. Histoire du 22e Bataillon canadien-français, Tome 1, 1914-1919. Montréal: Leséditions Chantecler Ltée, 1952.
Corrigall, D.J. The History of the Twentieth Canadian Battalion (Central Ontario Regiment) Canadian Expeditionary Force in the Great War, 1914-1919. Toronto: Stone and Cox Ltd., 1935.
Dobbin, Murray. The One-and-a-Half Men.Vancouver: New Star Books, 1981.
Dorling, H. Taprell. Ribbons and Medals:Naval, Military, Air Force and Civil. London: George Philip and Son Ltd., 1941.
Dowe, Francis S. The Canadian Military Register of Foreign Awards. Ottawa: Francis S. Dowe, 1979.
Elias, Peter Douglas. The Dakota of the Canadian Northwest. Winnipeg: The University of Manitoba Press, 1988.
Gaffen, Fred. Forgotten Soldiers.Penticton: Theytus Books Ltd., 1985.
Granatstein, J.L., and J.M. Hitsman. Broken Promises: A History of Conscription in Canada. Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1977.
Harrison, Julia D. Métis: People between Two Worlds. Vancouver, Toronto: Glenbow-Alberta Institute and Douglas and McIntyre, 1985.
Jackson, Louis. Our Caughnawagas in Egypt. Ottawa: W. Drysdale and Co., 1885.
Jenness, Diamond. The Ojibwa Indians of Parry Island: Their Social and Religious Life. Ottawa: J.O. Patenaude I.S.O., 1935.
Kerrigan, Evans. American War Medals and Decorations. New York: The Viking Press, 1971.
Lydekker, John Wolfe. The Faithful Mohawks. Port Washington, N.Y.: I.J. Friedman, 1968.
Military General Service, 1793-1814 (Canadian Recipients); Egypt Medal, 1882-1889 (Canadian Recipients); North West Canada 1885. London: Spink and Son Ltd., 1975.
Morris, Alexander. The Treaties of Canada . Toronto: Belfords Clark and Co., 1971.
Mountain Horse, Mike. My People: The Bloods . Calgary: Glenbow-Alberta Institute, 1979.
Nicholson, G.W.L. Canadian Expeditionary Force 1914-1919: Official History of the Canadian Army in the First World War. Ottawa: Queen's Printer, 1964.
Official History of the Canadian Army in the Second World War, Volume II: The Canadians in Italy, 1939-1945. Ottawa: Queen's Printer, 1956.
Reaman, G. Elmore. The Trail of the Iroquois Indians: How the Iroquois Nation Saved Canada for the British Empire. Great Britain: Frederick Muller, 1967.
Russell, E.C. Customs and Traditions of the Canadian Armed Forces. Ottawa: Deneau and Greenberg Publishers Ltd., 1980.
Saskatchewan Indian Veterans Association. We Were There. Saskatchewan: Federation of Saskatchewan Indian Nations, 1989.
Sealey, D. Bruce, and Peter Van de Vyvere. Manitobans in Profile: Thomas George Prince. Winnipeg: Peguis Publishers Ltd., 1981.
Stanley, George F.G. In the Face of Danger: The History of the Lake Superior Regiment. Port Arthur: The Lake Superior Scottish Regiment, 1960.
Stevens, G.R. Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry, 1919-1957, Volume III. Montréal: Southam Printing Company Ltd., 1958.
Stevens, James, ed. Great Leader of the Ojibway: Mis-quona-queb. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1972.
Stewart, Charles H. Overseas: The Lineages and Insignia of the Canadian Expeditionary Force, 1914-1919. Toronto: Mission Press, 1970.
Thompson, Chief Albert Edward. Chief Peguis and His Descendants. Winnipeg: Peguis Publishers Ltd., 1973.
Thorgrimsson, Thor, and E.C. Russell. Canadian Naval Operations in Korean Waters, 1950-1955. Ottawa: Department of National Defence, 1965.
de Tremaudan, A.-H. Hold High Your Heads.Winnipeg: Pemmican Publishers, 1982.
Weatherbe, K. From the Rideau to the Rhineand Back: The 6th Field Co. and Battalion Canadian Engineers in the Great War. Toronto: The Hunter-Rose Co. Ltd., 1928.
Wheeler, Victor W. The 50th Battalion in No Man's Land. Calgary: The Alberta Historical Resources Foundation, 1980.
"Canada's Indians in the Wars" [TommyPrince]. Indian News, 20, 6 (October 1979).
"Canada's Indians in the Wars: A Tribute." Tekawennake, November 7, 1980.
"Canadian Indians of Today" [GilbertMonture]. Indian-Eskimo Association (February 1965).
"Canadian Indians and World War One."The Tomorrow File, 1, 3 (November 30, 1983).
"'Cree Boys' Contribution Not Recognized." Kahtou, November 21, 1988.
Dempsey, James. "The Indians and World War One." Alberta History, 31, 3 (Summer 1983).
"Persistence of a Warrior Ethic among the Plains Indians." Alberta History, 36, 1 (Winter 1988).
"Dr. Gilbert C. Monture." Tekawennake, May 12, 1971, and February 8, 1978.
"The Dreavers of Mistawasis: A Saga of Service." The Saskatchewan Indian (December 1972).
"First World War Indian Hero Almost Forgotten" [Henry Norwest]. The Leader-Post [Regina], November 11, 1989.
"Forgotten Native Hero Remembered as Best Sniper of First World War" [Henry Norwest]. The Montreal Gazette, November 11, 1990.
Johnston, Bill. "First Canadian Nurse Overseas" [Edith Anderson Monture]. The Grand River Sachem, October 19, 1983.
Kines, Lindsay. "War Greeted Native with Two Shocks" [Peter Whitecloud]. The Brandon Sun, November 12, 1982.
"Oliver Milton Martin." Tekawennake , June 1, 1977.
Parenteau, Diane. "Battles, Friendships from War Remembered by Métis Vet." Windspeaker,7, 36 (November 10, 1989).
Porter, McKenzie. "Warrior" [TommyPrince]. Maclean's (September 1, 1952).
Raddall, Thomas H. "Sam Glode: Travels of a Micmac." Cape Breton's Magazine, 35 (January 1984).
"Represented War Mothers, Indian Dies"[McLeod family]. Kitchener-Waterloo Record, February 14, 1973.
Scott, Duncan Campbell. "The Canadian Indians and the Great World War." Appendix I of Canada in the Great War, Vol. III: Guarding the Channel Ports. Toronto: United Publishers of Canada Ltd., 1919.
Stanley, G.F.G. "The Significance of the Six Nations Participation in the War of 1812." Ontario History, LV, 4 (December1963).
"The Six Nations and the American Revolution." Ontario History, LVI, 4 (December 1964).
"And to Tomorrow ..." Aboriginal Multi-Media Society of Alberta (AMMSA), 2, 35 (November 9, 1984).
"War's Reality Taught Veterans Painful Lessons." Tekawennake, December 12, 1984.
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"World War I-1914-1918." AMMSA,2, 35 (November 9, 1984).
"World War II-1939-1945." AMMSA , 2, 35 (November 9, 1984).
Wuttunee, Deanna. "Veterans Association Update" [David Greyeyes]. The Saskatchewan Indian, 10,11 (November 1980).
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Manuscripts and Other References
Dempsey, James. "The Canadian Indians and World War Two." Unpublished research paper, University of Calgary, 1983.
"Indians of the Prairie Provinces in World War I." M.A. dissertation, University of Calgary, 1987.
Hill, Landon. "Remembrance Day"[poem]. Tekawannake, October 22, 1987.
On the Road Again: A Remembrance Day Special . Narr. Wayne Rostad. CBC television. November 12, 1990.
Thompson, David-Michael. "Ojibway and Mohawk Voyageurs in the Nile Expedition of 1884-1885."Unpublished research paper for the Native Veterans of Northwestern Ontario,1990.
Woodland Cultural Centre. Research Files [Cameron Brant, Tom Longboat, Oliver Martin]. Brantford.
Woodland Indian Cultural Educational Centre."Indian Hall of Fame" [pamphlet]. Brantford.
Warriors: A Resource Guide. Brantford,1986.
The following sources of information were also consulted:
War Diaries, Ships' Logs and Military Service Records, available through the National Archives of Canada.
National Archives of Canada Record Groups (RG), in particular:
1. Department of Indian Affairs war files-RG 10,Vols. 3180-3182, file 452; and Vols. 6762-6806; and
2. Department of Militia and Defence files-RG 24Vol. 1221, file HQ 593-1-7; Vol. 4383, file 2D, 34-7-109 andVol. 6566, file 1064-30-34.
Veterans Affairs would like to thank the following people for their assistance during the production of this publication:
Fred Gaffen, Senior Military Historian, Canadian War Museum, who reviewed and provided comments on the text. Mr. Gaffen's book Forgotten Soldiers was the first to cover the subject of Native veterans in depth and provided the basis for much of the author's research.
David-Michael Thompson, research developer for the Native Veterans of Northwestern Ontario, who reviewed the text and provided information and photos.
James Dempsey, Assistant Professor, Indian Studies, Saskatchewan Indian Federated College, who reviewed the text and provided information.
George Lafond, Director of Health, Saskatoon District Tribal Council, who reviewed the text and provided advice and information.
Howard Bernard, Acting Deputy Director General Planning and Services, Communications, Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, who reviewed the text and provided advice and information.
Heather L. Ebbs of Editor's Ink, who edited the English text.
Dr. Serge Bernier, Senior Historian (Francophone), Directorate of History, Department of National Defence, who provided a historical review and edited the French text.
Edwidge Munn, Historical Archivist, Directorate of History, Department of National Defence, who provided a historical review.
Liliane Grantham, O.A. Cooke, Isabel Campbell and Shirley Neill from the Directorate of History, Department of National Defence
Staff of the Woodland Cultural Centre and Museum, Brantford, Ontario
Artist Irma Coucill
Staff of the National Library of Canada
Staff of the National Archives of Canada, particularly the Personnel Records Centre
Viviane Gray, Manager of the Indian Art Centre, Indian and Northern Affairs Canada
The Social Trends Analysis Directorate, the Secretary of State of Canada
The Canadian War Museum
The Native Veterans of Northwestern Ontario
The Six Nations Veterans Association
The British Columbia Chapter of the National Indian Veterans Association
The Saskatchewan Indian Veterans Association
The Manitoba Métis Senate
Helen and Russell Moses
David Greyeyes Steele
We would also like to thank Odette Zybala, Team Leader, and Richard Massicotte, Translator, both of the Secretary of State Official Languages Service, Ottawa Translation Bureau (Veterans Affairs).
Produced by the Communications Division
Veterans Affairs Canada
La présente publication est disponible enfrançais sous le titre Soldats Autochtones, Terres Etrangères.
©Minister of Supply and Services Canada 1993
Veterans Affairs Canada
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