|In 1916 the Army totaled 108,399 men.||In 1917 Army strength reached 421,467.|
|On 1 January the British Army established a camouflage service which organized the manufacture of the material. The Army bought 500 trucks and formed them into 22 truck companies which became the first motorized supply effort.|
Screen actress Mary Pickford, "America's Sweetheart," was reported to be making nearly a million dollars a year.
The armies of Europe began to use camouflage netting over gun positions and ships were painted in what were called "dazzle" patterns.
|A National Defense Act was passed on 20 May that expanded the peacetime strength of the Army to 175,000 and allowed, in case of war, for its buildup to 286,000. The Act created the tactical brigade and division, with three brigades to a division and three regiments to a brigade.|
The U.S. Army, in the interest of standardization with their British ally, adopted the terminology "military intelligence" to replace what they had called "information."
On 27 August a fire at the Presidio of San Francisco claimed the wife and three daughters of General Pershing.
|American aviators joined the French Air Force and were formed into the Lafayette Escadrille in April; they downed a total of 776 enemy aircraft and lost 289.||The U.S. declared war on Germany in April and Fort Huachuca became the mobilization center for all servicemen in the state.|
The experiences of T. E. Lawrence in the Arab Revolt of 1916-1918 against Turkish rule provided an example of the effectiveness of waging guerilla warfare rather than trying to counter it. Lawrence wrote that the rebels would succeed "granted mobility, security ... time, and doctrine."
Woodrow Wilson was reelected president with the slogan "He Kept Us Out of War."
A National Defense Council was created.
U.S. exports set a record with $5.4 billion.
The National Park Service was formed.
"Preparedness parades" were held in American cities.
Margaret Sanger was jailed for operating a birth control clinic.
The Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to the International Red Cross headquartered in Geneva,
The Bolsheviks emerged in control after the Russian Revolution.
Puerto Ricans were granted U.S. citizenship.
On 16 August Fiorella La Guardia, future New York mayor, was commissioned as a first lieutenant in the Aviation Section of the Signal Corps.
With the Selective Service Act of 19 May, the country adopted conscription and required all males between the ages of 21-30 to register for f he draft. More than 10 million registered.
The Army established a Veterinary Corps.
Train robbers hit the Golden State Limited at Apache, north of Douglas.
On 11 February Hugh L. Scott became the ad interim Secretary of War, replacing Garrison. On 9 March Newton D. Baker replaced Scott as Secretary of War.
Throughout the year the Germans used zeppelins to bomb London.
A popular song expressing America's wish for neutrality was "I Didn't Raise My Boy To Be a Soldier."
George M. Cohan's song "Over There," was published.
By the end of the year there were 180,000 American servicemen in France, but they had yet to be committed to the fighting.
|Bertrand Russell wrote in Principles of Social Reconstruction, "The ultimate fact from which war results is not economic or political, and does not rest upon any mechanical difficulty of inventing means for the peaceful settlement of international disputes. The ultimate fact from which war results is the fact that a large proportion of mankind have an impulse to conflict rather than harmony, and can only be brought to cooperate with others in resisting or attacking a common enemy. ...War is surrounded with glamour, by tradition, by Homer and the Old Testament, by early education, by elaborate myths as to the importance of the issues involved, by the heroism and self-sacrifice which these myths call out."|
The Virgin Islands were purchased from Denmark for $25 million.
The Army formed the Counter Intelligence Police and organized its first Antiaircraft Artillery units.
On 26 December President Wilson nationalized the railroads.
On 6 April, a month after German submarines sank four American merchant ships, the U.S. declared war.
3. Women at the Fort
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