THE RED CROSS NURSE
Some details of Red Cross work in which women are especially interested---Fields of opportunity suggested by Woman's Bureau---Nursing service---Emergency detachments---Town and country nursing---Instructions for knitting, comfort kits, hospital garments, etc.--- Home Service Institutes in twenty-five cities.
The Woman's Bureau of the Red Cross does not undertake to deal with the professional women in the nursing field, as this is under the Bureau of Nursing, but it is reaching out to the non-professional or laywomen of the country, who, though not specifically trained for a particular line of work, are capable of rendering valuable service in time of war when every resource must be utilized.
The Woman's Bureau suggests the following as some of the fields of opportunity open to the laywomen for effective service:
(1) The giving of a united and unqualified service to the Red Cross. Every woman in the country should be an enrolled Red Cross member. It is becoming increasingly important that the great work of war relief should be controlled in such a way as to reduce to a minimum both the waste of effort and material, and the women of the country have an opportunity as never before to sink individual opinions and work shoulder to shoulder to make the war a success.
(2) The production of all kinds of supplies, such as:
a.-Surgical Dressings. The need for these is so great that the Red Cross is sending surgical dressings workers to Paris, and yet the Red Cross representatives in Paris say that this would not be necessary if the women in America only realized how much more effectively they could work in this country, where they are not handicapped by shortage of food, coal, etc.
b.-Hospital Garments and Other Hospital Supplies. The emphasis here should be placed on making such articles as are requested by the Red Cross in order to avoid the waste now existent in making huge quantities of articles which "somebody says are wanted," but no one knows just why or where.
c.-Knitted Garments for soldiers both at home and abroad. With the possibility of a serious wool shortage, it is important that it be used only for such garments as are urgently needed and requested by the Red Cross.
d.-Comfort kits for soldiers in the cantonments, in the hospitals and in the trenches..-Christmas packets for the men in the cantonments, in the hospitals and in the trenches.
(3) The cooperation with local Red Cross Chapters for such activities as:
a.-Assisting in all forms of civilian relief.
b.-Assisting at local canteens.
c.-Providing comforts for sick and convalescent soldiers.
d.-Dispensing cheer and comfort to soldiers' dependents.
e.-Tendering for use in chapter activities use of automobiles, either with personal service or hired chauffeurs.
(4) The volunteering of service at own expense for service in the war zone for various forms of work to be done under orders. Demand is made from time to time for a limited number for foreign service to assist in certain specified lines, such as:
(5) Providing money, equipment, etc., for workers who are qualified for service abroad but who cannot defray their own expenses.
These are some of the essential services in which the laywomen can help. To be of the maximum of assistance to themselves, to the men on the firing line and in camps and to the Red Cross, the untrained woman should seek required training. The American Red Cross through its vast machinery of Divisions and Chapters offers channels through which training in most lines may be secured and in all of those directly bearing on war relief. The successful laywoman is the one who can
1. Take orders.
2. Be cooperative-work with as well as for the Red Cross.
3. Regard her service to the country as the enlisted man does his oath of allegiance.
4. Exercise sound judgment and have breadth of vision.
5. Regard service as her keynote.
Miss Florence Marshall, Director of the Woman's Bureau, says: "This world calamity gives to the Red Cross an opportunity to give expression to the best and most characteristic side of American life, and to do it on a scale called for by the immensity of the sorrow and distress of mankind, and the Red Cross seeks the aid of the women of the nation in the gigantic task. The Red Cross knows the women are equal to the emergency."
Emergency detachments of the Nursing Service have been found necessary because of war. The body of enrolled Red Cross nurses constitutes the reserve for the Army and Navy Nurse Corps. The purpose of the formation of emergency detachments is to make available all over the country groups of Red Cross nurses organized for instant call to active service. The organization of emergency detachments is ordinarily effected by Red Cross nursing committees throughout the United States. The usual strength of an emergency detachment is nine or ten members but a smaller number may be authorized.
Members of emergency detachments (1) must be enrolled Red Cross nurses or eligible and willing to enroll; (2) must not be over forty nor less than twenty-three years of age (in very exceptional cases some latitude may be allowed beyond the set limits upon application to the Director of the Bureau of Nursing Service at Washington, stating the circumstances); (3) must pass a physical examination and file certificate of examination upon the form furnished by the Red Cross. These certificates must be sent to Washington through the local committee or the organizing nurse of the detachment-additional physical examinations may be required from time to time, (4) must file a certificate of immunity upon a form also furnished by the Red Cross shoving that the applicant has been vaccinated for smallpox and inoculated for typhoid and para-typhoid; those who have had typhoid fever or complete immunity treatment for the same need not take the treatment unless especially requested to do so.
Enrolled Red Cross nurses receive no compensation except when assigned to active duty. When called into active service with the Army and Navy Nurse Corps they will receive the pay provided by law for said Corps, namely, $50 a month in the United States and $60 a month elsewhere, plus maintenance and traveling expenses. Chief nurses may receive additional salary.
The following is an extract from instructions received from the Office of the Surgeon-General of the Army. A similar ruling has been made by the Navy Department. "Reserve nurses assigned to active service during war will be expected to serve as long as they may be needed. A nurse who desires relief from active service may apply therefor by letter to the Surgeon-General, through the proper channels, stating her reasons in full. If these reasons are sufficient in the judgment of the Surgeon-General her request may be granted. Return transportation will not be authorized to nurses who have served less than one year, unless the need for their services ceases to exist, or to those who are discharged for misconduct. A nurse who is found to be unsuited for the service, physically, professionally or temperamentally, will be furnished transportation to her home for relief from active service, without regard to length of service. "
Special circular ARC 702 concerning equipment, which includes specifications for uniform, will be supplied to each nurse before assignment to active duty. A regulation outdoor uniform has also been adopted.
Red Cross nurses definitely assigned to war service become thereby part of the military establishment of the United States. Although they remain Red Cross nurses their papers are transferred to the Army or the Navy Department, as the case may be, which thereupon assumes jurisdiction and issues orders and instructions covering assignments to duty and details of transportation.
It is highly important that organizing committees should at all times maintain their detachments at maximum strength and have reasonable assurance that each member is available for duty. Under no circumstances however, should nurses give up positions or buy equipment except on direct orders from Washington. Vacancies caused by illness or any other reason should be filled immediately and all required papers for the substituted members should be sent at once to Washington.
The refusal of a nurse to serve in time of war for any reason other than illness, should be investigated and such refusal without justifiable cause should be reported promptly to the National Committee.
When the organizing nurse of a detachment is asked to submit names and addresses of nurses available for duty, it is imperative before such are sent that she communicate with each individual nurse to ascertain if she is ready for service. At the same time she should determine the correct address to which the assignment for duty, oath of allegiance, and transportation may be sent. The nurse should remain at the address given until these orders are received. If this is not done it results in great confusion in the War Department and is a reflection upon the efficiency of the Red Cross Nursing Service. It is desirable, when possible, that nurses assemble at a central place and proceed together to their appointed destination. Under such circumstances, the orders can be mailed to the organizing nurse. If this is not possible, the orders may be issued to each nurse at the address given.
A phase of Red Cross work that should interest many women, especially those in small towns and rural districts, is the Town and Country Nursing Service. This department grew out of a realization of the need for a national organization of specially prepared nurses for public health work in small towns and rural districts, and was established in November, 1912. The Town and Country Service does not operate in towns or cities of over twenty-five thousand inhabitants. Red Cross public health nurses are employed by boards of health, boards of education, county boards of supervisors, industrial companies, anti-tuberculosis associations, women's clubs, and by various other groups. A fee is usually charged by the local nursing organization where nursing care is given, although patients who cannot afford to pay for such help are not denied it on that account.
There probably never was a time when the question of health and conservation of life was more vital to the nation than now. Instruction in a community in the proper feeding and care of infants and older children and in hygiene for the school child, in conservation of food supplies and in the making of sanitary homes, will go far towards the prevention of disease and of needless suffering and death among those who must carry the unusual burdens resulting from a state of war. Public health nursing may well be termed the first line of home defense.
The Bureau of Town and Country Nursing Service is one of three bureaus of the Red Cross Nursing Service, the other two being the Bureau of Nursing Service and the Bureau of Instruction. The latter is in charge of classes in home nursing and home dietetics. The Bureau of Nursing Service controls the nursing service (including public health nursing) for war and disaster and operates through the Department of Military Relief.
The Red Cross realizes the importance of sending only the best prepared nurses to the rural districts where the lone worker carries a heavy responsibility, and great care is accordingly exercised in the assignment of public health nurses to duty. Those desiring further information on this subject should ask their nearest Red Cross Chapter, their district chairman or the National American Red Cross for circular A.R.C. 204, which contains suggestions for the organization and administration of public health nursing in small communities, and for the guidance of chapters and other associations contemplating the employment of Red Cross public health nurses.
A Committee of Dieticians of the American Red Cross was appointed in 1916 by the National Committee on Nursing Service to pass on the credentials of applicants for the dietician service of the American Red Cross, not for active service with the society in any emergency that may arise, but as instructors in the Red Cross course in Home Dietetics. This Committee was also made responsible for the establishment of uniform standards for the enrollment of dietician. There are widening opportunities for instructor chiefly through the agency of Red Cross Chapters. The course of instruction for women, which has been provided by the Red Cross and placed under the Bureau of Instruction at national headquarters, deals with the importance of a well balanced diet for adults, children and invalids; the proper selection and comparative nutritive value of food and the underlying principles of dietetics, together with the practical application of this knowledge to buying, cooking and serving food. Instructors in this course are subject to the regulations of the Red Cross Nursing Service. For further information on these regulations dieticians may confer with the educational committee of the nearest Red Cross Chapter.
Miss Jane A. Delano, chairman National Committee on Red Cross Nursing Service, is ex-officio member of the Committee on Red Cross Dietician Service. The original committee consisted of: Chairman Miss Emma E. Gunther, Columbia University, New York City; Miss Isabel Ely Lord, Pratt Institute Brooklyn, N. Y.; Miss Annie W. Goodrich, Columbia University, New York City and Miss Elva A. George, Red Cross Headquarters, Washington, D. C. An enlarged committee was found necessary, which includes the following members: Miss Grace E. McCullough, Peter Bent Brigham Hospital, Boston Mass.; Miss Mary A. Lindsley, Cook County Hospital Chicago, Ill.; Miss Ada Z. Fish, William Penn High School, Philadelphia, Pa.; Miss Edna White, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio; Miss Effie Raitt.
University of Washington, Seattle, Wash.; Miss Emma Smedley, Philadelphia, Pa.; Miss Ruth Wheeler, University of Illinois, Urbana, Ill.; Miss Lenna Cooper, Battle Creek Sanitarium, Battle Creek, Mich.; Miss Catherine J. MacKay, Iowa State College, Ames, Iowa; Dr. Agnes F. Morgan, University of California, Berkeley, Cal.; Miss Helen M. Pope, Carnegie Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa. Other members may be added as necessary.
Comfort kits are always in great demand and the Woman's Bureau of the American Red Cross, Washington D. C., has issued a circular Number A.R.C. 402 which fully explains the proper method of making these comfort kits together with list of articles they should contain. All Red Cross Chapters should be able to supply this circular. Completed articles should be sent, if possible, to the nearest Red Cross Chapter. When this cannot be done, they should be sent directly to the Red Cross Division Supply Service in the nearest of the following cities: Boston, New York, Philadelphia, Washington, Atlanta, New Orleans, St. Louis, Cleveland, Chicago, Minneapolis, Denver, San Francisco, Seattle.
The Woman's Bureau also issues a circular (A.R.C. 400) giving complete instructions for knitting sweaters, mufflers, helmets, socks, wristlets, wash cloths, bottle covers, etc. Every woman who wishes to knit for the Red Cross should have these instructions, as they are official. Completed articles should be sent, if possible, to the nearest Red Cross Chapter. When this cannot be done, they should be sent directly to the Red Cross Supply Depot, New York City.
The Home Service of the Red Cross under the Department of Civilian Relief should be familiar to every American woman. The absence of the head of the family is the absence of one of the most important members of the household firm often, indeed, the senior partner. In many homes the absence of a son or brother who may have been the head of the family involves a hardship second only to that of the absence of the husband. Any deprivation of advice and sympathy is a heavy handicap to a household, even in times of peace.
The purpose of the Home Service is not merely to offset the loss of income that the absence of the head of the family involves, but to make possible the same standard of living that during his presence was in force. More than this, when the standard of living is low, it is the duty and the opportunity of the Home Service visitor to raise the standard.
The President himself has said, "Battlefield relief will be effected through Red Cross agencies operating under the supervision of the War Department, but civilian relief will present a field of increasing opportunity in which the Red Cross organization is especially adapted to serve and I am hopeful that our people will realize that there is probably no other agency with which they can associate themselves which can respond so effectively and so universally to allay suffering and relieve distress."
In July, 1917, the Woman's Bureau sent two representatives to France to study the question of garments and other supplies needed for the hospitals and refugees.
These representatives and other women already in France were appointed by the Red Cross Commission in Paris to act as a special committee for this purpose and made a partial report on the garments and supplies that are immediately needed.
Anticipating the severe cold of the winter in France, this report emphasized the need of warm materials, such as outing flannels, heavy bath robing, etc., for hospital garments.
Models for garments have been sent to the Woman's Bureau by the committee in Paris. The models have been given to the pattern companies, which have agreed to issue patterns in strict conformity with them. These patterns will be the official Red Cross patterns, and can be obtained from chapters, stores, or the pattern companies for ten cents each.
Patterns available and material desired for each article are as follows:
Pyjamas-Material: For winter-Flannel or outing flannel, good quality. For summer-Ginghams, seersuckers, and similar material. Color: light or dark stripes desirable for American hospitals; only dark colors for French hospitals.
Hospital bed shirts-Material: For winter-Canton flannel and twill, good quality. or summer- Twill, or good quality bleached or unbleached muslin. Bed shirts should be at least 1 yard and 4 inches long, finished.
Hospital bed shirts (taped)-Material: Same as for bed shirts.
Bath robes and convalescent robes-Material: For winter-Heavy bath robing. For summer Gray blanketing, either plain or with striped borders.
Bed jackets-Material: Bath robing or other very warm soft material.
Convalescent suits (lined pajamas)-Material: Outing flannel of dark plain color for outside and white for lining. Color: Blue, lined with white, with which red tie can be worn, especially desirable. Important to have convalescent patient conspicuous.
Bed Socks-Material: Flannel or outing flannel.
Undershirts-Material: Light weight flannel or flannelette (white).
Underdrawers-Material: White outing flannel or unbleached muslin.
Bandaged foot socks-Material: Outing flannel preferably dark; lined with white.
Operating gowns-Material: Twill, good grade.
Operating caps-Material: Same as for operating gowns.
Operating leggings-Material: Canton flannel or flannel.
Operating masks-Material: Hospital gauze or cheese cloth of a good quality.
Ice-bag covers-Material: Hospital gauze or cheese cloth of a good quality.
Hot water bag covers-Material: Outing flannel.
The patterns for the garments are all issued in to sizes, medium and large. For American hospitals two medium-sized garments should be made to every one of large size. For French hospitals, no large sizes are needed. Where no special mention is made, the same garments and other articles are wanted by both American and French hospitals.
Materials, including emblems which are to be used on the garments when the patterns call for them, can be purchased by the chapters from the Division Supply Depots.
The special points emphasized in the report of the committee are: 1. Convalescent robes should be warm; heavy bath robing is preferred. 2. Pajamas should be made of flannel or good outing flannel for winter use. 3. Pajamas for the French hospitals should be made in dark colors, as Frenchmen wear them only when about the hospitals and out-of-doors. Those for American hospitals may be made in light colors. 4. Convalescent suits (lined pajamas) are needed as the men wear them in place of other suits in both American and French hospitals. They should be made of bright colored materials that the convalescent patient may be conspicuous. 5. Both pajamas and lined pajamas are preferred with a turn-over collar with which a tie may be worn. 6. Nightingales are not desirable for either American or French hospitals. Bed jackets are used in place of them and should be made of warm material. 7. Operating leggings are desirable made of flannel of heavy Canton flannel for winter use. 8. Heavy, warm machine-made sweaters with long sleeves are needed by men in the tuberculosis hospitals; no particular color is mentioned. 9. Carpet slippers, or Romeos, or any good soft slipper with leather soles that can be worn about the wards and in the hospital grounds are needed. 10. There is an endless demand for socks-
Red Cross model (for Red Cross model of socks, see A.R.C. 400) made with heavy yarn and large needles (at least as large as No. 10 steel) are desirable, but other good models will be acceptable.
The report of the committee on the need for hospital linen and supplies calls for the following articles for which no patterns are given:
1. Sheets (both bleached and unbleached) at least 64 inches wide and 102 inches long. These may be wider or longer as desired.
2. Pillow slips of bleached or unbleached muslin for French hospitals should be 28 inches wide and 30 inches long and should have three pairs of tie tapes stitched on the inside of the hem to hold the pillow in. For American hospitals they should be about 36 inches long by 21 inches wide when finished.
3. Plain towels and bath towels. There is a great demand for towels of all sorts.
4. Wash cloths, either bath toweling or closely knitted ones.
5. Handkerchiefs, colored preferred; white acceptable.
6. Comfort pillows, all sizes and shapes, filled with any good soft material.
7. Bright colored bags, unfilled, for the men to use in the hospitals for their small personal belongings. The gayer the better.
8. Mattress covers need not be supplied for American hospitals. For French hospitals they should be made of ticking with French seams. One end should be left open for stuffing. Measurements, 6 feet 4 inches long by 2 feet 6 inches wide and 5 inches thick
9. Bed spreads. Colored cotton or chintz, 7 feet long by 5 feet wide. These should be packed in lots of 50 or 100 of the same material.
10. Old linen, any size, in good condition is wanted.
Garments which will probably be needed in largest quantities are: pajamas and hospital bed shirts.
Those needed in the second largest quantities: convalescent suits, (lined pajamas); underdrawers, undershirts, taped hospital bed shirts; bath robes; bed socks; bed jackets.
Those needed in smaller quantities: operating caps; operating masks; operating gowns; operating leggings; bandaged foot socks.
All other supplies, towels, sheets, pillow cases, etc., are needed continuously.
A representative of the Woman's Bureau will remain permanently in France to study the demands for all kinds of garments and supplies, in order to keep chapters in touch with the latest needs.
Boxes containing garments and hospital supplies should not exceed 3 x 2 x 2 feet in size. They should be made of five-eighths inch tongue and grooved boards, strongly joined at the corners, and should be lined with heavy water-proof paper, which must extend over the top of the contents after the box is filled. When possible each box should be filled with only one kind of garments or supplies. Garments or supplies designed for American or French hospitals should be packed in separate boxes, and so marked on the outside of the box.
Each box of garments should contain the waterproof paper wrapping, a typewritten inventory of its contents following the name and address of the shipper. Boxes should be marked on top "American Red Cross, Division Supply Depot," with the address to which the box is to be sent. The name and address of the shipper, the serial number of the box, and a statement (stenciled on the wood) of the contents of the box should also be given. A red cross four and one-half inches high and wide, should be painted on each end of the box.
Express companies will accept gifts to the Red Cross for shipment at two-thirds their regular rate when prepaid and addressed as above.
Chapters should ship to their Division Supply Depot in one of the following cities: Boston, Atlanta, Chicago, Seattle, New York, New Orleans, Minneapolis, Philadelphia, St. Louis, Denver, Washington, Cleveland, San Francisco.
An invoice or notice of shipment, giving the serial number of the box or boxes sent, and duplicate copies of their inventories, should be mailed by all shippers to the Chapter or Division Supply Depot to which the shipment is being forwarded.
For the purpose of more efficient operation, the American Red Cross has decided to divide the United States into Thirteen Divisions, each of which will be a separate and complete operating unit of the Red Cross, under the supervision of the Division Manager.
Each Division Manager will look to National Headquarters at Washington for determination of questions of policy and for suggestions that will increase the efficiency and productivity of the chapters in his division.
All chapters will deal directly with the division organizations and the head of each chapter will he responsible to the Division Manager in each case
The National organization will have contact with the chapters only through the various division offices.
By such decentralization National Headquarters at Washington will be enabled to give closer study and attention to large matters of policy, and to the fullest possible extension and development of the American Red Cross.
The divisions and directors are as follows: Atlantic, Miss Ellen L. Adee, 1 Madison Avenue, New York, N. Y.; Central Gulf, Mrs. E. E. Moberley, P. O. Bldg., New Orleans; Lake, Mrs. H. L. Sanford, 1034 Garfield Bldg., Cleveland, Ohio; Mountain, Mr. Henry. Swan ,(acting), 14th and Welton Sts., Denver; New England, Miss Lavinia H. Newell, 755 Boylston St., Boston, Mass.; Northern, Mrs. F. L. Fridley, 28 S. 8th St., Minneapolis, Minn.; Northwestern, Mrs. Lucy C. Hilton, White Building, Seattle, Wash.; Pacific, Mrs. A. L. McLeish, 942 Market St., San Francisco; Pennsylvania, Mrs. J. Willis Martin, 1601 Walnut St., Philadelphia, Pa.; Potomac, Mrs. F. L. Chapman, 930 14th St., Washington, D. C.; Southern, Mrs. John W. Grant, 424 Healy Bldg., Atlanta, Ga.; Southwestern, Mrs. Edmund F. Brown, 1617 Railway Exchange, St. Louis. Mo.
Red Cross Home Service Institutes have been established as follows:
1. Atlanta -Director, Miss Edith Thomson, 705 Gould Building. Supervisor Miss Helen Muse, Affiliated with the Methodist Training School.
2. Baltimore -Director, Miss Theo. Jacobs, 16 St. Paul St.
Supervisor, Miss Mary C. Goodwillie. In cooperation with Johns Hopkins University and Goucher College.
3. Boston -Director, Miss Katherine McMahon, 755 Boylston St. Supervisor, Mrs. Alice Higgins Lothrop, Affiliated with the Boston School for Social workers.
4. Chicago -Director, Miss Sophonisba P. Breckinridge, 2559 Michigan Ave. Supervisor, Miss Elizabeth S. Dixon, Affiliated with the Chicago School of Civics and Philanthropy.
5. Cincinnati -Director, Professor S. G. Lowrie, University of Cincinnati. Affiliated with University of Cincinnati.
6. Cleveland - Director, Mr. James F. Jackson,, 2182 East 9th St. Supervisor, Miss Helen W. Hanchette, Affiliated with Western Reserve University.
7. Columbia S.C. -Director, Miss Margaret Laing, 1211 Gervais St. Assistant Director, Miss Helen Kohn, Affiliated with University of South Carolina.
8. Columbus -Director, Professor J. E. Hagerty, Ohio State University. Supervisor, Mr. Stockton Raymond, Affiliated with Ohio State University.
9. -Director, Dr. Ivan Lee Holt, Southern Methodist University. Supervisor, Miss Flora Saylor, Affiliated with Southern Methodist University.
10. Denver -Director, Prof. Loran D. Osborn, Mountain Division Office, Red Cross, 14th & Wilton Sts. Supervisor, Miss Gertrude Vaile, Affiliated with the University of Colorado.
11. Indianapolis -Director, Prof. J. J. Pettijohn, 1016 Merchants Bank Bldg. Supervisor, Mr. Eugene Foster, Affiliated with the University of Indiana.
12. Milwaukee -Director, Professor John L. Gillen, Madison, Wisconsin. Supervisor, Miss Nell Alexander, Affiliated with the University of Wisconsin.
13. Minneapolis and St. Paul -Director, Prof. A. J. Todd, University of Minnesota; Supervisor, Minneapolis, Miss Caroline Bedford, 25 Old Chamber of Commerce. Supervisor, St. Paul, Miss Kathleen E. Gunckel, 104 Wilder Bldg. Affiliated with the University of Minnesota.
14. New Orleans -Director, Miss Eleanor McMain, 1202 Annunciation Street. Supervisor, Mr. Julius Goldman, Affiliated with Tulane University.
15. New York City -Director, Mr. Porter R. Lee, 105 East 22nd St. Supervisors, Mrs. John M. Glenn, 3C East 36th St.; Mrs. Janet Anderson, 185 Montague St., Brooklyn. Affiliated with the New York School of Philanthropy.
16. Philadelphia -Director, Mr. Bernard J. Newman, 425 S. 15th St. Supervisor, Miss Elizabeth Wood, Afflliated with the Pennsylvania School for Social Service.
17. Pittsburgh -Director, Prof. Francis Tyson, University of Pittsburgh. Supervisor, Miss Eleanor Hanson, Affiliated with the University of Pittsburgh.
18. Portland, Ore. -Director, Mr. Paul H. Douglas, Reed College. Supervisor, Mr. A. R. Gephart, Affiliated with Reed College.
19. Poughkeepsie -Afflliated with Vassar College.
20. Richmond -Director, Dr. H. H. Hibbs, Jr., 1112 Capitol St. Supervisor, Miss Leomis Logan, Affiliated with the Richmond School of Social Economy. -
21. San Francisco -Director, Dr. Jessica Peixotto, University of California. Supervisor, Miss Lucy Stebbins, Afflliated with University of California.
22. St. Louis -Director, Dr. George B. Mangold, 2221 Locust St. Supervisor, Miss William Wilder, Affiliated with the Missouri School of Social Economy.
23. Seattle -Director, Pro£. William F. Ogburn, University of Washington. Supervisor, Miss Virginia McMechen, Affiliated with the University of Washington.
24. Springfield, Ill. -Director, Dr. J. G. Stevens, Urbana, Ill.Supervisor, Miss Margaret Bergen, Springfield, Ill. Affiliated with the University of Illinois.
25. Washington -Director, Mr. Walter S. Ufford, 923 H St., N. W. Supervisor, Mrs. Walter S. Ufford, Affiliated with George Washington University.
Chapter XIII. Junior Red Cross
Table of Contents