Chapter One

1. From "The Southerner," Chapter 1. The first chapter in this novel is practically autobiographical, though fictitious names have been used. Back to text.

2. "The Rebuilding of Old Commonwealths." (1902.) Back to text.

3. "The Southerner," Chapter I. Back to text.

Chapter Two

4. "Letters of Thomas Carlyle to his Youngest Sister." Edited by Charles Townsend Copeland. Houghton, Mifflin & Company, 1899. Back to text.

Chapter Three

5. A memorandum of an old Atlantic balance sheet discloses that James Russell Lowell's salary as editor was $1,500 a year. Back to text.

6. A member of the firm of Houghton, Mifflin & Company. Back to text.

Chapter Four

7. Mr. David F. Houston, ex-President of the University of Texas, and in 1912 Chancellor of the Washington University of St. Louis. Back to text.

8. Charles R. Van Hise, President of the University of Wisconsin. Back to text.

9. Clarence Poe, editor of The Progressive Farmer. Back to text.

10. The reference is to the meeting of the Southern and the General Education Boards. Back to text.

Chapter Five

11. Mr. Irwin Laughlin, first secretary of the American Embassy in London. Back to text.

12. In about a year Page moved the Chancery to the present satisfactory quarters at No. 4 Grosvenor Gardens. Back to text.

13. Mrs. Walter H. Page. Back to text.

14. Katharine A. Page, the Ambassador's daughter. Back to text.

15. "Effendi" is the name by which Mr. F. N. Doubleday, Page's partner, is known to his intimates. It is obviously suggested by the initials of his name. Back to text.

16. A reference to William SuIzer, Governor of New York, who at this time was undergoing impeachment. Back to text.

17. See Chapter VIII, page 258. Back to text.

18. The Ambassador's son. Back to text.

19. Miss Katharine A. Page. Back to text.

20. Mr. Andrew Carnegie. Back to text.

21. Mrs. Walter H. Page is the daughter of a Scotchman from Ayrshire. Back to text.

22. The astonishing thing about Page's comment on the leadership of the United States---if it would only take this leadership---is that these letters were written in 1913, a year before the outbreak of the war, and eight years before the Washington Disarmament Conference of 1921-22. Back to text.

23. Just what this critical Briton had in mind, in thinking that the removal of a New York governor created a vacancy in the Vice-Presidency, is not clear. Possibly, however, he had a cloudy recollection of the fact that Theodore Roosevelt, after serving as Governor of New York State, became Vice-President, and may have concluded from this that the two offices were held by the same man. Back to text.

24. For years this idea of the stenographer back of a screen in the Foreign Office has been abroad, but it is entirely unfounded. Several years ago a Foreign Secretary, perhaps Lord Salisbury, put a screen behind his desk to keep off the draughts and from this precaution the myth arose that it shielded a stenographer who took a complete record of ambassadorial conversations. After an ambassador leaves, the Foreign Secretary, however, does write out the important points in the conversation. Copies are made and printed, and sent to the King, the Prime Minister, the British Ambassador in the country to which the interview relates, and occasionally to others. All these records are, of course, carefully preserved in the archives of the Foreign Office. Back to text.

25. The Rev. Hardwicke Drummond Rawnsley, the well-known Vicar of Crosthwaite, Keswick, poet and student of Wordsworth. President Wilson, who used occasionally to spend his vacation in the Lake region, was one of his friends. Back to text.

26. It is perhaps unnecessary to say that the Ambassador was thinking only of diplomatic "fight." Back to text.

27. The Underwood Bill revising the tariff "downward" became a law October, 1913. It was one of the first important measures of the new Wilson Administration. Back to text.

28. Secretary of Agriculture in President Wilson's Cabinet. Back to text.

29. Of Aberdeen, North Carolina, the Ambassador's brother. Back to text.

30. Of Pinehurst, North Carolina, the Ambassador's eldest son. Back to text.

31. Mr. and Mrs. Francis B. Sayre, son-in-law and daughter of President Wilson, at that time on their honeymoon trip in Europe. Back to text.

32. Mr. Robert N. Page, the Ambassador's brother, was at this time a Congressman from North Carolina. Back to text.

33. This is from a letter to President Wilson. Back to text.

Chapter Six

34. Prince Arthur of Connaught and the Duchess of Fife were married in the Chapel Royal, October 16, 1913. Back to text.

35. See the Appendix (at end of Vol. II) for this episode in detail. Back to text.

36. There was a suggestion, which the Ambassador endorsed, that President Wilson should visit England to accept, in the name of the United States, Sulgrave Manor, the ancestral home of the Washingtons. See Chapter IX, page 274. Back to text.

37. Viscount Haldane, Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain since 1912. Back to text.

Chapter Seven

38. This was another manifestation of British friendliness. When the American excitement was most acute, it become known that British capitalists had secured oil concessions in Colombia. At the demand of the British Government they gave them up. Back to text.

39. Mr. Nelson O'Shaughnessy, Chargé d'Affaires in Mexico. Back to text.

40. Mr. and Mrs. Francis B. Sayre. Back to text.

41. Colonel House succeeded in preventing it. Back to text.

42. Senator Augustus O. Bacon, of Georgia who was reported to nourish ill-feeling toward Page for his authorship of "The Southerner." Back to text.

43. Probably an error for John Reed, at that time a newspaper correspondent in Mexico---afterward well known as a champion of the Bolshevist régime in Russia. Back to text.

Chapter Eight

44. The Committee to celebrate the centennial of the signing of the Treaty of Ghent, which ended the War of 1812. The plan to make this an elaborate commemoration of a 100 years' peace between the English-speaking peoples was upset by the outbreak of the World War. Back to text.

45. This was the designation Mr. Bryan's admirers sometimes gave him. Back to text.

46. The reference is to President Roosevelt's speech at the Guildhall in June, 1910. Back to text.

47. This refers to the declination of the British Government to be represented at the San Francisco world exhibition, held in 1915. Back to text.

48. John Bassett Moore, at that time the very able counsellor of the State Department. Back to text.

49. Mr. Root's masterly speech on Panama tolls was made in the United States Senate. January 21, 1913. Back to text.

50. Ante: page 202. Back to text.

51. This is the fact that is too frequently lost sight of in current discussions of the Melting pot. In the Atlantic Monthly for August, 1920, Mr. William S. Rossiter, for many years chief clerk of the United States Census and a statistician of high standing, shows that, of the 95,000,000 white people of the United States, 55,000,000 trace their origin to England, Scotland, and Wales. Back to text.

52. The Ambassador's letter is dated March 18th. Back to text.

53. Mr. Champ Clark, Speaker of the House of Representatives, was one of the most blatant opponents of Panama repeal. Back to text.

Chapter Nine

54. Mr. and Mrs. Francis B. Sayre, son-in-law and daughter of President Wilson. Back to text.

55. Ex-President of the University of California, Roosevelt Professor at the University of Berlin, 1909-10. Back to text.

56. James A. O'Gorman was the anti-British Senator from New York State at this time working hard against the repeal of the Panama tolls discrimination. Back to text.

57. In February, 1915, William S. Benton, an English subject who had spent the larger part of his life in Mexico, was murdered in the presence of Francisco Villa. Back to text.

58. Mr. Irwin Laughlin, first secretary of the American Embassy in London; at this time spending a few weeks in the United States. Back to text.

59. Obviously President Wilson. Back to text.

60. Mr. Hugh C. Wallace, afterward Ambassador to France, and Mrs. Wallace. Mr. and Mrs. Wallace accompanied Mr. and Mrs. House on this journey. Back to text.

Chapter Ten

61. At this time American military attaché. Back to text.

62. The American Government, on the outbreak of war, sent the U. S. S. Tennessee to Europe, with large supplies of gold for the relief of stranded Americans. Back to text.

63. The late Augustus P. Gardner, of Massachusetts. Back to text.

64. The materials on which this account is based are a memorandum of the interview made by Sir Edward Grey, now in the archives of the British Foreign Office, a similar memorandum made by Page, and a detailed description given verbally by Page to the writer. Back to text.

65. Colonel House, of course, is again referring to his experience in Berlin and London, described in the preceding chapter. Back to text.

66. Richard Olney, Secretary of State in the Cabinet of President Cleveland, who was a neighbour of Colonel House at his summer home, and with whom the latter apparently consulted. Back to text.

67. This is the bill passed soon after the outbreak of war admitting foreign built ships to American registry. Subsequent events showed that it was "full of lurking dangers." Back to text.

Chapter Eleven

68. Evidently the battle of Heligoland Bight of August 28, 1914. Back to text.

69. The reference in all probability is to Mr. Charles L. Hoover, at that time American Consul at Carlsbad. Back to text.

70. German Ambassador in Washington. Back to text.

71. Professor of Psychology at Harvard University, whose openly expressed pro-Germanism was making him exceedingly unpopular in the United States. Back to text.

72. Evidently written in the latter part of September, 1914. Back to text.

73. Miss Katharine A. Page, the Ambassador's daughter. Back to text.

74. The Hogue, the Cressy, and the Aboukir were torpedoed by a German submarine September 22, 1914. This exploit first showed the world the power of the submarine. Back to text.

75. Princess Lichnowsky, wife of the German Ambassador to Great Britain. Back to text.

76. Private Secretary to Mrs. Page. Back to text.

77. Mr. Harold Fowler, the Ambassador's Secretary. Back to text.

78. Probably a reference to Mr. Charles M. Schwab, President of the Bethlehem Steel Company, who was in London at this time on this errand. Back to text.

79. No. 4 Grosvenor Gardens. Back to text.

80. Miss Katharine A. Page had just returned from a visit to the United States. Back to text.

81. Mr. Arthur W. Page's country home on Long Island. Back to text.

82. Evidently the Audacious, sunk by mine off the North of Ireland, October 27, 1914. Back to text.

83. Tewfik Pasha, the very popular Turkish Ambassador to Great Britain. Back to text.

84. Germany was conducting her trade with the neutral world largely through Dutch and Danish ports. Back to text.

85. Mr. Irwin Laughlin, first secretary of the American Embassy in London, furnishes this note: "This statement about America was made to me more than once in Germany, between 1910 and 1912, by German officers, military and naval." Back to text.

86. Of Pinehurst, North Carolina, the Ambassador's oldest son. Back to text.

87. On June 12, 1914. The title of the address was "Some Aspects of the American Democracy." Back to text.

88. The Ambassador's youngest son. Back to text.

89. Mrs. W. H. Page was at this time spending a few weeks in the United States. Back to text.

Chapter Twelve

90. In a letter addressed to " My fellow Countrymen" and presented to the Senate by Mr. Chilton. Back to text.

91. This was in October, 1914. In August, 1915, when conditions had changed, cotton was declared contraband. Back to text.

92. Mr. Chandler P. Anderson, of New York, at this time advising the American Embassy on questions of international law. Back to text.

93. Mr. Irwin Laughlin, first secretary of the Embassy. Back to text.

94. Sir Cecil Spring Rice, British Ambassador at Washington. Back to text.

95. Sir Edward Grey. Back to text.

96. Senator William J. Stone, perhaps the leading spokesman of the pro-German cause in the United States Senate. Senator Stone represented Missouri, a state with a large German-American element. Back to text.

97. See Chapter VII. Back to text.

98. Private secretary to Sir Edward Grey. Back to text.

99. The reference is to an attempt by Germany to start peace negotiations in September, 1914, after the Battle of the Marne. This is described in the next chapter. Back to text.

Chapter Thirteen

100. On September 5, 1914, Great Britain, France, and Russia signed the Pact of London, an agreement which bound the three powers of the Entente to make war and peace as a unit. Each power specifically pledged itself not to make a separate peace. Back to text.

101. Published in Chapter XI, page 327. Back to text.

102. Colonel House's summer home in Massachusetts. Back to text.

103. Ambassador from Austria-Hungary to the United States. Back to text.

104. This, with certain modifications is Article 10 of the Covenant of the League of Nations. Back to text.

105. There is a suggestion of these provisions in Article 8 of the League Covenant. Back to text.

106. Article 11 of the League Covenant reflects the influence of this idea. Back to text.

107. From the President's second message to Congress, December 8. 1914: "It is our dearest present hope that this character and reputation may presently, in God's providence, bring us an opportunity, such as has seldom been vouchsafed any nation, to counsel and obtain peace in the world and reconciliation and a healing settlement of many a matter that has cooled and interrupted the friendship of nations." Back to text.

108. The opening of the Dardanelles would have given Russian agricultural products access to the markets of the world and thus have preserved the Russian economic structure. It would also have enabled the Entente to munition the Russian Army. With a completely equipped Russian Army in the East and the Entente Army in the West, Germany could not long have survived the pressure. Back to text.

109. German Under Foreign Secretary. Back to text.

110. It was the Wilson Administration's plan that there should be two peace gatherings, one of the belligerents to settle the war, and the other of belligerents and neutrals, to settle questions of general importance growing out of the war. This latter is what Colonel House means by "the second convention." Back to text.

111. Mr. Pleasant A. Stovall, American Minister to Switzerland. Back to text.

112. Mr. Thomas Nelson Page, American Ambassador to Italy. Back to text.

113. Mr. Joseph E. Willard, American Ambassador to Spain. Back to text.

Chapter Fourteen

114. The Ambassador's granddaughter. Back to text.

115. "A Cycle of Adams Letters, 1861-1865," edited by Worthington Chauncey Ford. Vol. 1, p. 84. Back to text.

116. "The Life and Letters of John Hay," by William Roscoe Thayer. Vol. II, p. 166. Back to text.

117. On September 6th, certain documents seriously compromising Dr. Constantin Dumba, Austro-Hungarian Ambassador to the United States, were published in the British press. They disclosed that Dr. Dumba was fomenting strikes in the United States and conducting other intrigues. The American Government gave Dr. Dumba his passports on September 17th. Back to text.

118. On August 26th, Count Bernstorff gave a pledge to the United States Government, that, in future, German submarines would not attack liners without warning. This promise was almost immediately violated. Back to text.

119. Sir Lionel Sackville-West was British Minister to the United States from 1881 to 1888. In the latter year a letter was published which he had written to an American citizen of British origin, the gist of which was that the reelection of President Cleveland would be of advantage to British. For this gross interference in American domestic affairs, President Cleveland immediately handed. Sir Lionel his passports. The incident ended his diplomatic career. Back to text.

120. In this passage the Ambassador touches on one of the bitterest controversies of the war. In order completely to understand the issues involved and to obtain Lord Haldane's view, the reader should consult the very valuable book recently published by Lord Haldane: "Before the War." Chapter II tells the story of Lord Haldane's visit to the Kaiser, and succeeding chapters give the reasons why the creation of a huge British army in preparation for the war was not a simple matter. Back to text.

121. The italics are Page's. Back to text.

122. Viscount Bryce, author of "The American Commonwealth" and British Ambassador to the United States, 1907-1913. Back to text.

123. In a communication sent February 10, 1915, President Wilson warned the German Government that he would hold it too a "strict accountability" for the loss of American lives by illegal submarine attack. Back to text.

124. A reference to the Anglo-French loan for $500,000,000, placed in the United States in the autumn of 1915. Back to text.

125. The Marquis Imperial Back to text.

126. Rustem Bey, the Turkish Ambassador to the United States, was sent home early in the war, for publishing indiscreet newspaper and magazine articles. Back to text.

Chapter Fifteen

127. Senator Hoke Smith, of Georgia, was at this time-and afterward---conducting a bitter campaign against the British blockade and advocating an embargo as a retaliation. Back to text.

128. Torpedoed off Sardinia on Nov. 7, 1915, by the Austrians. There was a large loss of life, including many Americans. Back to text.

Chapter Sixteen

129. Count Beckendorff. Back to text.

130. Afterward private secretary to Premier Lloyd George. Back to text.

131. A messenger in the American Embassy. Back to text.

132. The Rt. Hon. Reginald McKenna. Back to text.

133. Sir Horace Plunkett. Back to text.

134. It was Archibald's intercepted baggage that furnished the documents which caused Dumba's dismissal. Back to text.

135. Sir William Tyrrell, private secretary to Sir Edward Grey. Back to text.

Chapter Seventeen

136. By William Roscoe Thayer, published in 1915. Back to text.

137. The Ambassador had in mind The Round Table. Back to text.

138. James W. Gerard, American Ambassador to Germany, and, as such, in charge of British interests in Germany. Back to text.

139. The German military and naval attachés, whose persistent and outrageous violation of American laws led to their dismissal by President Wilson. Back to text.

140. E. S. Martin, Editor of Life. Back to text.

141. Mr. Henry Ford at this time was getting together his famous peace ship, which was to sail to Europe "to get the boys out of the trenches by Christmas." Back to text.

142. J. M. Dent, the London publisher. Back to text.

143. $500,000,000. Back to text.

144. The Ambassador's sons. Back to text.

145. The Ambassador's infant grandson, son of Arthur W. Page. Back to text.

Chapter Eighteen

146. A playful reference to the Ambassador's infant grandson, Walter H. Page, Jr. Back to text.

147. Drowned on the Hampshire, June 5, 1916, off the coast of Scotland. Back to text.

148. President of the University of Virginia. Back to text.

149. Hampton Institute, at Hampton, Va. Back to text.

150. C. Alphonso Smith, Professor of English, U. S. Naval Academy; Roosevelt Professor at Berlin, 1910-11. Back to text.

Chapter Nineteen

151. This is quoted from a hitherto unpublished despatch of Bernstorff's to Berlin which is found among Page's papers. Back to text.

152. The China case was a kind of Trent case reversed. In 1861 the American ship San Jacinto stopped the British vessel Trent and took off Mason and Slidell, Confederate commissioners to Great Britain. Similarly a British ship, in 1916, stopped an American ship, the China, and removed several German subjects. As the British quickly saw the analogy, and made suitable amends, the old excitement over the Trent was not duplicated in the recent war. Back to text.

153. See Chapter XIII, page 434. Back to text.

154. Mr. Forbes had been Governor-General of the Philippines from 1909 to 1913. His work had been extraordinarily successful. Back to text.

155. Secretary of Agriculture. Back to text.

156. In charge of government road building, a distant relative of the Ambassador. Back to text.

157. Major General William Crozier, U. S. A., Chief of Ordnance. Back to text.

158. See Chapter XIX, pages 160-164. Back to text.

159. It was General Sheridan. Back to text.

160. See Chapter XIX, pages 160 and 164. Back to text.

161. The treaty between the United States and Great Britain, adopted through the urgency of Mr. Bryan, providing for the arbitration of disputes between the two countries. Back to text.

Chapter Twenty

162. "My Three Years in America," by Count Bernstorff, p. 294. Back to text.

163. This narrative is based upon memoranda made by Page. Back to text.

164. It was delivered and published on January 22nd. Back to text.

Chapter Twenty-One

165. At this time the proposal of such a gift found much popular favour. However, the plan was not carried through. Back to text.

166. At the meeting of Page and the President at Shadow Lawn, September 22, 1916, See Chapter XIX. Back to text.

167. Secretary of Agriculture in President Wilson's Cabinet. Back to text.

168. The quotation is from a memorandum of the conversation made by one of the secretaries of the American Embassy. Back to text.

169. The British and French Commissions, headed by Mr. Balfour and M. Viviani. Back to text.

170. American military attaché in London. Back to text.

Chapter Twenty-Two

171. The reference is to the attack made in October, 1916, by the German Submarine U-53, off Nantucket on several British ships. An erroneous newspaper account said that the Benham, an American destroyer, had moved in a way that facilitated the operations of the German submarine. This caused great bitterness in England, until Page showed the Admiralty a report from the Navy Department proving that the story was false. Back to text.

172. This, of course, is Franklin D. Roosevelt, Assistant Secretary of the Navy in 1917. Back to text.

173. This letter is dated London and was probably begun there. It is evident, however, that the latter part was written at Brighton, where the Ambassador was taking a brief holiday. Back to text.

174. This was a long document describing conditions in great detail. Back to text.

175. The Navy Department had taken the position that arming merchantmen was the best protection against the submarine. This statement was intended to refute this belief. Back to text.

176. Dr. Wallace Buttrick, President of the General Education Board. who was sent at this time to deliver lectures throughout Great Britain on the United States. Back to text.

Chapter Twenty-Four

177. On August 1, 1917, Pope Benedict XV sent a letter to the Powers urging them to bring the war to an end and outlining possible terms of settlement. On August 29th President Wilson sent his historic reply. This declared, in memorable language, that the Hohenzollern dynasty was unworthy of confidence and that the United States would have no negotiations with its representatives. It inferentially took the stand that the Kaiser must abdicate, or be deposed, and the German autocracy destroyed, as part of the conditions of peace. Back to text.

178. On November 29, 1917, the London Daily Telegraph published a letter from the Marquis of Lansdowne, which declared that the war had lasted too long and suggested that the British restate their war aims. This letter was severely condemned by the British press and by practically all representative British statesmen. It produced a most lamentable impression in the United States also. Back to text.

179. Eugene C. Shoecraft, the Ambassador's secretary. Back to text.

180. As related in Chapter XXII, page 267, President Wilson was informed of the so-called "secret treaties" by Mr. Balfour, in the course of his memorable visit to the White House. Back to text.

Chapter Twenty-Five

181. Mr. Henry Morgenthau, American Ambassador to Turkey, 1913-16, an American of Jewish origin who opposed the Zionist movement as un-American and deceptive. Back to text.

182. American member of the Supreme War Council. Afterward member of the American Commission to Negotiate Peace. Back to text.

183. Sir Henry Wilson had recently succeeded Sir William Robertson as Chief of the Imperial General Staff.vBack to text.

184. First Lord. of the Admiralty. Back to text.

185. Secretary of Agriculture. Back to text.

186. See Chapter XXIV Back to text.

187. This meeting, on April 6, 1918, was held at the Mansion House. Page and Mr. Balfour were the chief speakers. Back to text.

Chapter Twenty-Six

188. Of Aberdeen, N. C, the Ambassador's sister. Back to text.

189. "Dramatic Moments in American Diplomacy," by Ralph W. Page, 1918. Back to text.

190. The reference is to a letter written in 1823 by Thomas Jefferson to President Monroe at the time when the Holy Alliance was threatening the independence of South America. "With Great Britain," Jefferson wrote, "we should most sedulously cherish a cordial friendship and nothing would tend more to knit our affections than to be fighting once more, side by, side, in the same cause." Back to text.

191. See Vol. II, page 307. Back to text.


192. Colonel (now Major General) George O. Squier, Military Attaché at the American Embassy. Back to text.

193. The wedding of Mr. Page's daughter at the Chapel Royal. Back to text.

194. Mrs. Page. Back to text.

195. Editor of the London Times. Back to text.

196. Mrs. Kipling. Back to text.

197. Mr. Edward Bell, Second Secretary of the American Embassy. Back to text.

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