W. Reginald Wheeler
China and the World War
TREATIES AND AGREEMENTS WITH REFERENCE TO KOREA
I. Treaty, Japan-Korea---August 26, 1894. (At the beginning of the war between Japan and China.)
Article 1. "The object of the alliance is to maintain the independence of Korea on a firm footing and . . . "
II. Treaty (of Shimonoseki), Japan-China ---April 17, 1895. (At the end of the war.)
Article 1. "China recognizes definitely the full and complete independence and autonomy of Korea."
III. Agreement, Japan-Russia ---April 25, 1898.
Article 1. "The (two governments) recognize definitely the sovereignty and entire independence of Korea and pledge themselves mutually to abstain from all direct interference in the internal affairs of that country."
IV. Treaty, Korea-China ---Sept. 11, 1899.
Article 1. "There shall be perpetual peace and friendship between the Empire of Korea and the Empire of China . . . . ..
V. Treaty, England-Japan. (Making the Anglo-Japanese Alliance) ---Jan. 30, 1902.
Preamble. "The Governments of Great Britain and Japan, actuated solely by a desire to maintain the status quo and general peace in the Extreme East, being, moreover, specially interested in maintaining the territorial integrity of the Empire of China and the Empire of Korea, and in securing equal opportunities in those countries for the commerce and industry of all nations, hereby agree . . . "
Article 1. "The High Contracting Parties, having mutually recognized the independence of China and Korea, declare themselves to be entirely uninfluenced by any aggressive tendencies in either country."
VI. Convention, France-Russia--- March 3, 1902.
The two governments "have received a copy of the Anglo-Japanese agreement of Jan. 30, 1902, concluded with the object of maintaining the status quo and the general peace in the Far East, and preserving the independence of China and Korea, which are to remain open to the commerce and industry of all nations . . .
"The two Governments consider that the observance of these principles is at the same time a guarantee of their special interests in the Far East."
VII. Rescript, by the Emperor of Japan, Feb. 10, 1904 (declaring war against Russia).
". . .
"The integrity of Korea is a matter of gravest concern to this Empire. . . . the separate existence of Korea is essential to the safety of our realm.
". . . .
". . . . the absorption of Manchuria by Russia would render it impossible to maintain the integrity of China, and would, in addition, compel the abandonment of all hope for peace in the Extreme East . . . "
VIII. Protocol, Japan-Korea -Feb. 23, 1904.
Article 1. "For the purpose of maintaining a permanent and solid friendship between Japan and Korea and firmly establishing peace in the Far East, the Imperial Government of Korea shall place full confidence in the Imperial Government of Japan, and adopt the advice of the latter in regard to improvements in administration."
Article 2. "The Imperial Government of Japan shall in a spirit of firm friendship insure the safety and repose of the Imperial House of Korea."
Article 3. "The Imperial Government of Japan definitely guarantee the independence and territorial integrity of the Korean Empire."
IX. Treaty, Great Britain-Japan --- August 12, 1905. (Renewing the Alliance.)
Article 3. "Japan possessing paramount political, military and economic interests in Korea, Great Britain recognizes the right of Japan to take such measures . . . in Korea as she may deem proper . . . provided that such measures are not contrary to the principle of equal opportunities for the commerce and industry of all nations."
X. Treaty (of Portsmouth), Japan-Russia -Sept. 5, 1905.
Article 2. "The Imperial Russian Government, acknowledging that Japan possesses in Korea paramount political, military, and economic interests, engage neither to obstruct nor to interfere with the measures . . . which the Imperial Japanese Government may find it necessary to take in Korea."
XI. Convention, Japan-Korea--- Nov. 17, 1905.
Preamble. The two governments, "desiring to strengthen the principle of solidarity which unites the two Empires, have . . . concluded:
Article 1. "The Government of Japan . . . will hereafter have control and direction of the external relations and affairs of Korea . . . "
In 1906 Marquis Ito was made (Japanese) Resident-General in Korea.
In 1907 Japan prevented the representatives of the Korean Emperor from being given a hearing at The Hague Conference.
XII. Convention, Japan-Korea---July 24, 1907.
"The Governments of Japan and Korea, desiring speedily to promote the wealth and strength of Korea and with the object of promoting the prosperity of the Korean nation, have agreed. . . "
"1. In all matters relating to the reform of the Korean administration the Korean Government shall receive instructions and guidance from the (Japanese) Resident-General . . .
"4. In all appointments and removals of high officials the Korean Government must obtain the consent of the Resident-General.
"5. The Korean Government shall appoint to be officials of Korea any Japanese subjects recommended by the Resident-General.
"6. The Korean Government shall not appoint any foreigners to be officials of Korea without consulting the Resident-General."
In 1908 Prince Ito declared publicly that it was no part of Japan's purpose to annex Korea
In 1909 Prince Ito declared that Korea must be "amalgamated" with Japan.
XIII. Treaty, Japan-Korea---Aug. 22, 1910.
Article 1. "His Majesty the Emperor of Korea makes complete and permanent cession to his Majesty the Emperor of Japan of all rights of sovereignty over the whole of Korea."
Article 2. "His Majesty the Emperor of Japan accepts the cession mentioned in the preceding article, and consents to the complete annexation of Korea to the Empire of Japan."
On August 29, 1910, Japan formally declared Korea annexed to the dominions of his Imperial Majesty the Japanese Emperor.
(This summary appears in Contemporary Politics in the Far East, by S. K. Hornbeck, copyrighted by D. Appleton & Co., and is here used by permission of author and publishers.)
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