SCOTT'S OFFICIAL HISTORY
THE AMERICAN NEGRO
EMMETT J. SCOTT, AM., LL.D.
Author of "Tuskegee and Its People," "Is
Liberia Worth Saving?" and
Secretary of Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute. Eighteen
A Complete and Authentic Narration, from Official Sources,
of the Participation Of
A Full Account of the War Work Organization of Colored Men
Prefaced with Highest Tributes to the American
Copyright. 1919, by Emmett J. Scott.
PHOTOGRAPHS USED IN THIS VOLUME ARE COPYRIGHTED
Underwood & Underwood, Paul Thompson, E, L. Snyder; Baker Art
Gallery; Western Newspaper Union; Scurlock;, Committee on
Public Information; Beresford Studio; Emmett J. Scott;
War Camp Community Service; Canfield & Shook;
Webb Studio; International Film
Service; and others
All rights reserved.
MY WIFE AND CHILDREN
TO WHOSE LOVE AND INSPIRATION
I OWE SO MUCH.
A. ----AUTHOR'S PREFACE
B. ----LOYALTY AND DEMOCRACY OF THE NEGRO, BY SECRETARY BAKER
C. ----TRIBUTE TO THE NEGRO SOLDIER, BY GENERAL PERSHING
D. ----THE NEGRO'S PART IN THE WAR, BY THEODORE ROOSEVELT
CHAPTER I.----HOW THE GREAT WAR CAME TO AMERICA
The Underlying Causes of the War---Racial Hatreds and National Enmities ---Germany's Ambition, to Rule the World---The Gathering of the War Clouds---Germany's Attempt to Stir Up Trouble Between the United States and Mexico---Events that Led to America's Participation In the War.
CHAPTER II. ----THE CALL TO THE COLORS
Negro Troops that Were Ready When War Was Declared---The Famous 9th And 10thCavalry, U. S. Army---The 24th and' 25th. Infantry-National Guard Units of Colored Troops---The 8th Illinois---The 15th New York---National Guard Units of Ohio, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Maryland, and Tennessee---First Separate Battalion of the District of Columbia---How All of These Responded to the Call.
CHAPTER III.----OFFICIAL RECOGNITION OF THE NEGRO'S INTEREST
Appointment of Emmett J. Scott as Special Assistant to the See?retary of War---Difficulties Encountered In Establishing the Negro's Status---Opportunities Afforded for Effective Work on Behalf of Negro Soldiers---Better Opportunities for Negro Officers, Soldiers, Nurses, Surgeons, and Others Obtained Through This Official Connection.
CHAPTER IV.----THE WORK OF THE SPECIAL ASSISTANT
Guarding the Interests of Negro Soldiers and Civilians---Promoting a Healthy Morale---Cases of Alleged Discrimination Against Negro Draftees---The Edward Merchant Case---The John D. Wray Case---How Justice Was Secured---A War Department Inquiry---Training of Colored Officers.
CHAPTER V.----THE NEGRO IN THE NATIONAL ARMY
Selective Service Law the Most Complete Recognition of the Citizenship ---Of the Negro, North and South---All the Duties and Responsibilities of Patriots Imposed Upon the Negro by the Draft Act---Tribute by the Provost Marshall General to the Colored Soldier---Assignment of Negro Draftees to Cantonments.
CHAPTER VI.----A CRITICAL SITUATION IN THE CAMPS
Race Problems that Had to be Solved---Fear of the Southern Whites that Trouble Would Follow the Training of Negro Troops In the South--- Situation Complicated by the Houston Riot---Protest of the Governor of South Carolina---Dr. Scott Called to Spartanburg, S. C. to Allay Trouble There---How the Negro Soldier Finally Won the Respect and Confidence of the South.
CHAPTER VII.----COLORED OFFICERS AND HOW THEY WERE TRAINED
First Officers' Training Camp for Colored Men at Fort Des Moines--- Iowa Major J. E; Spingarn's Fight for the Establishment of This Camp---Methods Of Training Reserve Officers---Negro Educational Institutions Furnish Personnel---Seven Hundred Colored Officers Commissioned at Fort Des Moines.
CHAPTER VIII.----TREATMENT OF NEGRO SOLDIERS IN CAMP
Men from the South Sent to Northern Camps to Face a Hard Winter---Attempts at Discrimination Against Negro Soldiers and Officers-Firm Stand of the Secretary of War Against Race Discrimination---General Ballou's "Bulletin No. 35"---Members of Draft Boards Dismissed for Discrimination Against the Race.
CHAPTER IX.----EFFORTS TO IMPROVE CONDITIONS.
Secretary Baker and the Trying Situation at Camp Lee, Virginia---Reports on Investigations at Numerous Camps---Improved Conditions Brought About Gradually---The Case of Lieutenant Tribbett and Similar Cases of Race Prejudice.
CHAPTER X.----NEGRO SOLDIERS OF FRANCE AND ENGLAND
French Colored Colonials the First Black Soldiers to Take Part In the War---The Story of These Senegalese Fighters---Their Important Part from the Beginning of the War---The Fight for the African Colonies---German 'Employment of Negro Troops In the Early Part of the War.
CHAPTER XI.----THE NEGRO COMBAT DIVISION
Pull Detailed Account of the Organization and Fighting Campaigns of the Famous Ninety-Second, as Recorded, by the Division's Official Historian---Complete Officlal Reports of Eveily Battle in Which the Ninety-second Took Part---Commendation by Commanding Officers.
CHAPTER XII.----CITATIONS AND AWARDS, 92ND DIVISION
Officers and Men of the Famous Negro Division Whose Heroic Conduct Gained for Them the Distinguished Service Cross---Details of Their Deeds of Heroism in Action---Special Mention of Officers and Men by Various Commanding Officers.
CHAPTER XIII.----THE STORY OF "THE BUFFALOES"
Glorious Record of the 367th Infantry Regimpnt--Colonel James A. Moss---Presentation of Colors by the Union League Club---"The Buffaloes" In France---How They "Saw It Through" at Metz---Their Heroic Conduct Under Fire---Regimental Colors Decorated, by Order of the French High Commaud---A Tribute from France to "These Sunburned Americans."
CHAPTER XIV.----RECORD OF "THE OLD FIFTEENTH"
The Glorious Story of the 369th United States Infantry, Formerly of the New York National Guard---The Regiment That Never Lost a Man Captured, a Trench, or a Foot of Ground---First Negro Troops to Go into Action In France.
CHAPTER XV.----"THE EIGHTH ILLINOIS"
Story of the 370th U. S. Infantry---Another Negro National Guard Regiment that Won Distinction on the Battlefield---Chicago's Colored Fighters Called "Black Devils" by the Germans and "Partridges" by the French Because of Their Proud Bearing---First American Troops to March into the Fortified City of Laon---Their Stubborn Resistance at the Oise-Aisne Canal.
CHAPTER XVI.----THE 371ST INFANTRY IN FRANCE
How This Colored Regiment of the "Red Hand" Division Helped to Win the War---Service in the Trenches under General Goybet---In the Great Champagne Offensive---Fierce Fighting and Heavy Losses---The Regiment Decorated by the French-Individual Citations and Awards.
CHAPTER XVII.----THE RECORD OF THE 372ND
A Regiment Made Up of National Guard Troops and Drafted Men-Attached to the Famous French "Red Hand" Division---Its Splendid Record in France---At Hill 304-Heroic Exploits of Individnals---The Regiment Decorated with the Croix de Guerre---Citations and Awards.
CHAPTER XVIII.----NEGRO HEROES OF THE WAR
The Exploit of Henry Johnson and Needham Roberts---How One American Soldier In No-Man's Land Killed Four Germans and Wounded Twenty-Eight Others Single-Handed---First American Soldiers to Receive the French Croix de Guerre---Other Instances of Individual Heroism by Negro Soldiers.
CHAPTER XIX.----THE NEGRO SOLDIER AS A FIGHTER
Unanimous Praise by Military Observers---Value of Negroes as Shock Troops---Discipline and Morale Under Fire---What the War Correspondents Said About Them---Comments by Foreign Military Observers---Estimates by American and French Officers.
CHAPTER XX.----WITH OUR SOLDIERS IN FRANCE
Official Reports of the Only Accredited Negro War Correspondent---Ralph W. Tyler, Representative with the A. E. F. of the U. S. Committee on Public Information---The Story of the Life and Fighting of American Negro Soldiers in France as Seen by This Trained Observer.
CHAPTER XXI.----NEGRO MUSIC THAT STIRRED FRANCE
Recognition of the Value of Music by the U. S. War Department---The Patriotic Music of Colored Americans---Lieutenant James Europe and His Famous "Jazz" Band---Other Leaders and Aggregations of Musicians---Enthusiasm of the French People and Officers for American Music as Interpreted by These Colored Artists and Their Bandsmen.
CHAPTER XXII.----THE NEGRO IN THE SERVICE OF SUPPLY
A Vast Army of Colored Stevedores In France---Their Important and Efficient Work---Essential to the Combatant Army in the Trenches---Their Loalty and Cheerfulness---Important Lessons Learned in the War---The Labor Battalions---Well-Earned Tributes to These Splendid Colored Workers Overseas.
CHAPTER XXIII.----" WITH THOSE WHO WAIT"
Provision for Technical Training of Draftees---Units that Did Not Get to France---Vocational and Educational Opportunities Opened to Them---The Negro in the Students' Army Training Corps-In the Reserve Officers' Training Corps.
CHAPTER XXIV.----GERMAN PROPAGANDA AMONG NEGROES
Insidious Efforts to Create Dissatisfaction Among Colored Americans---Germany's Treacherous Promises---How the Hun Tried to Undermine the Loyalty of Our Negro Citizens---Steps Taken to Combat Enemy Propaganda---Work of the Committee on Public Information.
CHAPTER XXV.----How COLORED CIVILIANS HELPED TO WIN
Their Co-operation in All the Liberty Loan Drives---The Negro and the Red Cross---In the United War Work Campaign---How the Negroes Bought War Savings Stamps---Special Contributions and Work of Colored Citizens---The "Committee of One Hundred" and Its Valuable Work.
CHAPTER XXVI.----NEGRO LABOR IN WAR TIME
Organization for War Work---The Division of Negro Economics---Pioneer Work of Dr. George E. Haynes---Negro Representation in Council-Seeking to Improve Race Relations---Good Work by Negroes in the Shipyards---Attitude of Organized Labor---The Opportunities of the War.
CHAPTER XXVII.----NEGRO WOMEN IN WAR WORK
Enthusiastic Service of Colored Women in the Wartime Emergency---Overcoming the Problems of Race by Pure Patriotism---Work for the Red Cross---The Young Women's Christian Association---The Colored Hostess Houses and Rest Rooms for Soldiers---War Problems of Living---The Circle for Negro War Relief---Colored Women in the Loan Drives---Important Work in War Industries.
CHAPTER XXVIII.----SOCIAL WELFARE AGENCIES
Important Welfare Work of the Young Men's Christian Association and Other Organized Bodies---Negro Secretaries of the Y. M. C. A.---The Problem of Illiteracy in the Camps---The Social Secretaries---Results of Education---The Y. W. C. A. Hostess Houses---The Knights of Columbus---Caring tor Retained Soldiers.
CHAPTER XXIX.----NEGRO LOYALTY AND MORALE
Eager Response of Colored Draftees---Notable Tributes to the Patriotism of the Negro Race by the White Press---Also by President Wilson, Secretary Baker, Secretary Daniels and Others---Negro Loyalty Never Doubted---Patriotic Negro Demonstrations and Other Instances of Loyalty.
CHAPTER XXX.----DID THE NEGRO SOLDIER GET A SQUARE DEAL?
Reports of Widespread Discrimination and Harsh Treatment In Camp---Many Manifestations of Prejudice by White Officers---The Question of White or Negro Officers for Negro Regiments---Higher Officers of the Army Usually Fair---Disinclination to Utilize Colored Nurses and Colored Medical Men---Secretary Baker's Efforts to Prevent Race Discrimination---Reports of Negro Observers on Conditions Overseas.
CHAPTER XXXI.----WHAT THE NEGRO GOT OUT OF THE WAR
A Keener Sense of His Rights and Privileges as a Citizen of the United States---Racial Attitude of the South-Returning Negro Soldiers and Conditions in the North---The Attitude of Organized Labor-Instances of Discrimination---The Black Man and His Claims to Equal Treatment.
A1.----COLORED OFFICERS COMMISSIONED AT FT. DES MOINES
A2.----COLORED CHAPLAINS IN THE U.S. ARMY
A3.----OFFICIAL SUMMARY OF THE TREATY OF PEACE
(a)---- MAP OF CENTRAL EUROPE SHOWING TERRITORIAL CHANGES
---------UNDER THE TREATY
(b)----KEY TO THE MAP
(c)----FINAL CHANGES IN THE TREATY
A5.----CHRONOLOGY OF THE WORLD WAR