*An edited version was published in Journal of Academic Librarianship XXIV, no 3 (1998), pp. 201-207.
This web format is reproduced with permission of the print publisher.
[Charles De Gaulle was asked in an interview once:] 'Are there three or four authors who are Europe to you?' He said immediately, without hesitating, 'Of course, Dante, Goethe, Chateaubriand.' The astonished interviewer said: 'What, Monsieur? No Shakespeare?' And the icy smile came: 'You asked me about Europe.'"(2)
Scholarly communities are becoming international in scale, not just local or national. Scholars in all fields can today find colleagues across the globe. The end of the cold war, with the consequent relaxation of some long-standing barriers to travel, access and colleagueship, is one change that has helped this along. A second involves rapid advances in electronic scholarly communication which make possible the inexpensive, quick and reliable sharing of ideas, texts, and now even sound and visual images across very great distances. In many disciplines of the humanities and social sciences, new scholarly perspectives (post-modernism, cultural studies) are also encouraging exchanges across national borders.(3)
Boundaries have eroded. Ideas devised for the Third World have been imported into European Studies; models formulated for Europe have spilled into Third World studies. The study of Europe has become more integrated into comparative studies.(10)
He remarked at another point that:
Anthropologists, economists, political scientists, sociologists and historians all borrow from each other. Topics have become more important than disciplines; models and approaches are used by several fields rather than promoted as the province of one or another.(11)
European history is now being practiced under a number of rubrics--gender, social, cultural, family, labor, comparative and economic history--that have their own meetings, journals, and constituencies. Taken together, there is probably more activity in the European field than any one scholar can ever comprehend, much less participate in.(12)
The... Scandinavian countries, so marginalized up to now, will no doubt gain greater prominence as interest in the fate of the welfare state grows. Spain's democratization and Italy's economic revival may also turn attention to those countries.(18)
...the industrialized nations that use a world language dominate the flow of books and, to considerable extent, the flow of knowledge and ideas as well... these countries, especially the United States, Britain, France and, to a lesser extent, Germany, Spain, and until recently, Russia--constitute the intellectual centers of the world. Most other nations... are the periphery and dependent to varying degrees on knowledge, and often books, produced at the center.(19)
"Some exceptions are the smaller, highly literate nations such as ...Sweden... [and] Holland."(20)
Europe includes five of the ten largest language groups in the world and is responsible for almost 44 percent of world book production. A look at book production in the major European countries documents significant growth in the past decade.(30)
... we have to expect a further sizable increase in the volume of European publishing, very likely for the next couple of decades and not only in the countries of Germany and Great Britain, where the national book production is already at an all time high. Publishing activities have also been on the increase, and very impressively so, in France, Italy, and Spain.(31)
United Kingdom: 90,000 titles
Vatican City: 200(34)
"...a lot of owners are absentee landlords. This is called multi-nationalism when you do it, and foreign takeovers when it is done to you."(49)
Only seldom will American libraries find it useful to send orders directly to a European commercial publisher... Most scholarly and virtually all trade publishers... prefer not to deal with individual or institutional customers. In many cases orders and even inquiries sent to a publisher will be passed on to a bookstore for fulfillment. Even if a publisher does provide the item, several problems may occur... correspondence and invoices are unlikely to be in English; and prepayment may be required or additional charges for shipping or check conversion may be imposed.(54)
... the information age began with a profound crisis in scholarly literature. The seventies will be recognized as the stage in the history of scholarly literature in which the traditional forms of book and journal became problematical and in which the tradition of these forms... begins to unravel in a worrisome manner. Higher production costs, recession, lower library budgets, incredible increases in numbers of journals and then in prices of journals...(60)
The total number of scholarly serial titles can now be conservatively estimated at 50,000, more generously at 90,000. The periodical, once a stopgap measure between the letter and the book, has become the central medium of scholarly communication. It has pushed the book into the background, despite the plethora of monographs that appear year by year.(61)
1. John R. Gillis, "The Future of European History," Perspectives. American Historical Association Newsletter 34, no. 4 (April 1996), p. 4.
2. As quoted by George Steiner, "Culture, the Price You Pay," in Richard Kearney, States of Mind. Dialogues with Contemporary Thinkers (New York: New York University Press, 1995), p. 82.
3. The Internationalization of Scholarship and Scholarly Societies (New York: American Council of Learned Societies, 1995), p. v.
4. Caroline W. Bynum, "The Last Eurocentric Generation," Perspectives. American Historical Association Newsletter 34, no. 2 (February 1996), pp. 3-4.
5. Gillis, "The Future of European History," p. 6.
6. Marek Andrzejewski, "Schweizer in Elbing, das Schicksal der schweizerischen Bürger in Elbing im Jahr 1945," Westpreußen-Jahrbuch 44 (1993), pp. 5-36.
7. Gabriele Birken-Silverman, "Sprachregression und Sprachwechsel bei den Italoalbanern Nordkalabriens," in: Dieter Kattenbusch, ed., Minderheiten in der Romania (Wilhelmsfeld: Egert, 1995), pp. 331-50.
8. Pedro Quade, "Imigrantes guineenses em Lisboa," Boletim de Informaçâo Sócio-Economica 7 (March-June 1991), pp. 3-7.
9. Irene Andreassen, "Fishing Household Words in Dialects Spoken by People of Finnish Origin in Northern Norway; "Ei se naly jolla on kallaa." Om fiskerihusholdsord i kvendialekter," Nordlyd 20 (1994), pp. 121-132.
10. Peter A. Gourevitch, "Research Trends in Western Europe: The Collapse of Boundaries," in: A.M. Angiletta, et al., eds., The State of Western European Studies: Implications for Collection Development (New York: Haworth Press, 1984), p. 14.
11. Gourevitch, "Research Trends in Western Europe," p. 15.
12. Gillis, "Future of European History," p. 4.
13. Helmut Arntz, "Die Zukunft des wissenschaftlichen Buches," in: Peter Meyer-Dohm, ed., Das wissenschaftliche Buch (Hamburg: Verlag für Buchmarkt-Forschung, 1969), pp. 147-149. As cited by Bernhard Fabian, "Wissenschaftliche Literatur heute," in: B.F. and Paul Raabe, eds., Gelehrte Bücher vom Humanismus bis zur Gegenwart (Wiesbaden: O. Harrassowitz, 1983), p. 181.
14. Michael Holquist, "A Report from the Field" in The Internationalization of Scholarship and Scholarly Societies, p. 50.
15. Cf. Gourevitch, "Research Trends in Western Europe," p. 22.
16. Gillis, "Future of European History," p. 5.
17. Ivan T. Berend. Central and Eastern Europe, 1944-1993: Detour from the
Periphery to the Periphery. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.
18. Gillis, "Future of European History," p. 5.
19. Philip G. Altbach, "Publishing and the Intellectual System," in: Altbach and Edith S. Hoshino, eds. International Book Publishing: An Encyclopedia (New York: Garland, 1995): 273-74, adopting ideas suggested by Edward Shils, "Metropolis and Province in the Intellectual Community," in Shils, The Intellectuals and the Powers and Other Essays (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1972): 355-71.
20. Altbach, "Publishing and the Intellectual System," p. 274.
22. Cf. Claudius Gellert, ed. Diversification of European Systems of Higher Education. (Frankfurt a.M.: Lang, 1995), p. 68.
23. Ibid., pp. 68-69.
24. Tonnes Bekker-Nielsen, "International Scholarly Publishing," in: Altbach and Hoshino, International Book Publishing, p. 211.
25. Gellert, Diversification of European Systems of Higher Education, p. 70.
26. Cf. Renate Mayntz, "Academy of Sciences in Crisis: A Case Study of a Fruitless Struggle for Survival" in Uwe Schimank & Andreas Stucke, eds., Coping with Trouble. How Science Reacts to Political Disturbances of Research Conditions (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1994), pp. 163-188; as well as Hans-Georg Wolf, "German Unification as a Steamroller? The Institutes of the Academy of Sciences of the GDR in the Period of Transformation" in Schimank and Stucke, Coping with Trouble, pp. 189-232.
27. Gellert, Diversification of European Systems of Higher Education, p. 70.
28. Calculated from UNESCO Statistical Yearbooks at five year intervals from 1965 to 1995, comparing population versus enrollment levels in tertiary education.
29. 1995 UNESCO Statistical Yearbook: 6-3.
30. Jutta Reed-Scott, principal author, Scholarship , Research Libraries, and Global Publishing. (Washington, D.C.: Association of Research Libraries, 1996), p. 30.
31. Knut Dorn, Champagne Taste and a Beer Budget: The Problem of Increasing Scholarly Publishing in Europe and Decreasing Academic Library Budgets in North America, talk presented at the annual meeting of the Center for Research Libraries, Chicago, April 24, 1992, and subsequently published as an offprint, p. 1.
32. For caveats on limitations of the UNESCO statistics, cf. Jutta Reed-Scott, Scholarship , Research Libraries, and Global Publishing, p. 29; Gretchen Whitney, "International Book Production Statistics," in Altbach and Hoshino, International Book Publishing, pp. 165-166, 183, 185; James Campbell, "Publishing and Export Bookselling in Western Europe," in: Karen A. Schmidt, ed., Understanding the Business of Library Acquisitions (Chicago: American Library Association, 1990), p. 60, footnote 2.
33. Gretchen Whitney, "International Book Production Statistics," in: Altbach and Hoshino, International Book Publishing, p. 185.
34. Compiled from 1993, 1994 and 1995 UNESCO Statistical Yearbooks, averages having been rounded to the nearest thousand in all but the last three cases.
35. Using data from Whitney, "International Book Production Statistics," p. 172, chart 5.
36. Figured from Notiziario: ISTAT (Istituto Nazionale di Statistica) serie 4, foglio 41, XV/12 (September 1994): 4; and from serie 4, foglio 41, XVI/6 (September 1996): 3-4.
37. Paul Metz and John Stemmer, "A Reputational Study of Academic Publishers," College & Research Libraries 57, no. 3 (May 1996), p. 289.
38. Bekker-Nielsen, "International Scholarly Publishing," p. 211.
39. Philip G. Altbach, "Publishing and the Intellectual System," p. 272.
40. Ibid., pp. 271-272.
41. Irving L. Horowitz and Mary E. Curtis, "Scholarly Book Publishing in the 1990s," in Altbach and Hoshino, International Book Publishing, p. 303.
42. A phrase used by François Rouet, "France," in Altbach and Hoshino, International Book Publishing, p. 542.
43. Dorn, Champagne Taste and a Beer Budget, p. 2.
44. Information furnished by Bertelsmann itself on its Worldwide Web server at "http://www.bertelsmann.com/bag/deutsch/portrait/"
45. "Leading Multinational Publishing Corporations," appendix to: Altbach and Hoshino, International Book Publishing, pp. 250-251. Some multinational particulars on holdings derived from Lucy Latané Gordan, "Publishing in Europe: Recent Reports," Wilson Library Bulletin (June 1990), p. 61.
46. Robert A. Carter, "The History of International Book Publishing," in: Altbach and Hoshino, International Book Publishing, p. 163.
47. Albert N. Greco, appendix 3 to "Mergers and Acquisitions" article in Altbach and Hoshino, International Book Publishing, p. 242, table.
48. As noted by Gilles Rochefoucauld in an address on "Francophone Literature and Publishing in Switzerland and Belgium" at the ACRL - WESS Romance Discussion Group meeting in New York City, July 8, 1996. A copy of the address was distributed as "RL347 Romance Discussion Gr" via e-mail on July 31, 1996.
49. Gordon Graham, "Nationalism and the Book Business," Publishers Weekly 237 (March 16, 1990), p. S2.
50. Hachette holdings information derived from various appendices in Altbach and Hoshino, International Book Publishing.
51. Gordon Graham, "Multinational Publishing," in: Altbach and Hoshino, International Book Publishing, p. 246.
52. Herbert R. Lottman, "Publishing à la Française," Publishers Weekly 237 (June 1, 1990), p. S28.
53. Gordan, "Publishing in Europe: Recent Reports," p. 61.
54. James Campbell, "Publishing and Export Bookselling in Western Europe," p. 62.
56. German-E electronic discussion group contribution of February 5, 1997 as a response to the subject of "Carl Hauptmann Edition."
57. Robert Samuelson, "Europe's New Nutty Money," Newsweek, January 13, 1997, p. 55. "The single currency," Samuelson further suggests, "is an economic version of the Maginot line...."
58. As quoted by Samuelson, ibid..
59. Charles Germain, "The European Publishing Community and the European Electronic Environment," Collection Management 19, no. 3/4 (1995), p. 132.
60. Bernhard Fabian, "Wissenschaftliche Literatur heute," p. 176 (my translation).
61. Ibid., pp. 176-177 (my translation).
62. Unfortunately, these criteria exclude the British Isles, France, the Benelux countries, Sweden and Spain. For the United States, likewise, there are no consistently reliable UNESCO totals for journal titles.
63. Calculated from the tables for "Non-daily newspapers and periodicals: number and circulation" in the 1965 and 1995 UNESCO Statistical Yearbooks. An attempt was made to exclude weekly and all other newspapers from the periodical totals, but this may vary from country to country. Only total numbers of titles are calculated, not circulation.
64. Cf. Peter A. Bruck, "Brauchen wir das wissenschaftliche Buch?" in: Börsenblatt für den deutschen Buchhandel 8 (January 28, 1997), pp. 3-18.
65. Announced at the American Library Association conference in Chicago, June 24, 1995.
66. Charles Germain, "The European Publishing Community," p. 135.
Last updated: July 2001.